Anthropology (14e) : 9780205957187

Anthropology (14e)

Ember & Ember
 
Edition
 
14
ISBN
 
9780205957187
ISBN 10
 
0205957188
Published
 
07/09/2014
Published by
 
Pearson Higher Ed USA
Pages
 
688
Format
 
In stock
 
Title type
Book
$297.99
 
 
 
Description

Explains how and why human cultures vary so greatly across space and time

 

Anthropology, provides students with a comprehensive and scientific introduction to the holistic four fields of anthropology and the important role of applied anthropology.  Readers will understand humans in all their variety, and why such variety exists. It also show students how anthropological skill sets can be applied beyond academia. The 14th Edition places an increased emphasis on new explanations and the necessity to evaluate these new explanations logically as well as on the basis of the available evidence.  

 

Table of contents
  • Part I: INTRODUCTION
  • Chapter 1: What Is Anthropology?
  • Chapter 2: Research Methods in Anthropology
  • Part II: HUMAN EVOLUTION
  • Chapter 3: Genetics and Evolution
  • Chapter 4: Human Variation and Adaptation
  • Chapter 5: Primates
  • Chapter 6: The First Hominins
  • Part III: CULTURAL EVOLUTION
  • Chapter 7: The Origins of Culture and the Emergence of Homo
  • Chapter 8: The Emergence of Homo sapiens
  • Chapter 9: The Upper Paleolithic World T
  • Chapter 10: Origins of Food Production and Settled Life
  • Chapter 11: Origins of Cities and States
  • Part IV: CULTURAL VARIATION
  • Chapter 12: Culture and Culture Change
  • Chapter 13: Chapter 9: Culture and the Individual
  • Chapter 14: Communication and Language
  • Chapter 15: Getting Food
  • Chapter 16: Economic Systems
  • Chapter 17: Social Stratification: Class, Ethnicity, and Racism
  • Chapter 18: Sex, Gender, and Culture
  • Chapter 19: Marriage and the Family
  • Chapter 20: Marital Residence and Kinship
  • Chapter 21: Associations and Interest Groups
  • Chapter 22: Political Life: Social Order and Disorder
  • Chapter 23: Religion and Magic
  • Chapter 24: The Arts
  • Part V: USING ANTHROPOLOGY
  • Chapter 25: Practicing and Applying Anthropology
  • Chapter 26: Health and Illness
  • Chapter 27: Global Problems
New to this edition

In This Section:

I)  Overall Changes

II) Chapter-by-Chapter Changes

 


I) Overall Changes

 

Immersive Learning Experiences with REVEL

  • NEW! Interactives and Videos. Integrated within the narrative, interactives and videos empower students to engage with concepts and take an active role in learning. REVEL's unique presentation of media as an intrinsic part of course content brings the hallmark features of Pearson's bestselling titles to life. REVEL's media interactives have been designed to be completed quickly, and its videos are brief, so students stay focused and on task.
  • NEW! Quizzing. Located throughout REVEL, quizzing affords students opportunities to check their understanding at regular intervals before moving on.
  • NEW!A Fully Mobile Learning Experience. REVEL enables students to read and interact with course material on the devices they use, anywhere and anytime. Responsive design allows students to access REVEL on their tablet devices, with content displayed clearly in both portrait and landscape view.
  • NEW! Familiar Learning and Study Tools. Highlighting, note taking, and a glossary personalize the learning experience. Educators can add notes for students, too, including reminders or study tips.
  • NEW! Assignment Calendar. REVEL allows educators to indicate precisely which readings must be completed on which dates. This clear, detailed schedule helps students stay on task by eliminating any ambiguity as to which material will be covered during each class. And when students know what is expected of them, they're better motivated to keep up.
  • NEW! Performance Dashboard. REVEL lets educators monitor class assignment completion as well as individual student achievement. It offers actionable information that helps educators intersect with their students in meaningful ways, such as points earned on quizzes and tests and time on task. Of particular note, the trending column reveals whether students' grades are improving or declining – which helps educators identify students who might need help to stay on track.

 

Engaging Pedagogically-Driven Design

  • NEW! Learning Objectives have been added to each chapter helping readers to focus on the material ahead.  Chapter-ending summary materials have been completely revised to link back to the Learning Objectives presenting a more clear overview of the important material covered in the chapter.
  • NEW! Shorten text. The book length has again been reduced from its original print, now consisting of only 27 chapters. The new length is more focused on key concepts.

 

A Clear Understanding of humans

  • NEW! Application of major topics. Applied Anthropology Boxes provide students a better understanding of the vast range of issues to which anthropological knowledge can be usefully applied. These boxes offer an additional way to show how anthropology helps people lead better lives. Significant expansion of practicing anthropology with an expanded chapter and separation of medical anthropology into its own chapter.

 

Focus on Contemporary issues

  • NEW! Environmental issues.  An expanded focus on environmental issues is presented.

 


II) Chapter-by-Chapter Changes

 

PART I: INTRODUCTION

Chapter 1: What Is Anthropology?

  • Three new boxes on individual anthropologists–an archaeologist, an ethnographer, and  a physical anthropologist–and their work<

Chapter 2: Research Methods in Anthropology

  • In a new section provide a brief introduction to some of the major ideas that have guided this history of anthropology in the United States.
  • The new applied box describes work that forensic anthropologists conducted to identify the remains of Philip II of Macedon.

 

PART II: HUMAN EVOLUTION

Chapter 3: Genetics and Evolution

  • Incorporated a brief history of evolutionary thought to give context to the extensive review of genetics and the processes of evolution, including natural selection and what it means, that follows.
  • A new second box feature introduces the emerging field of molecular anthropology.

Chapter 6: The First Hominins

  • This chapter has been revised to include discussions of new species and information on early hominin diets. One box feature, moved from a later chapter for this edition, discusses how we reconstruct ancient diet from teeth.
  • A new box feature discusses ideas about how environmental change contributed to hominin evolution.

PART III: CULTURAL EVOLUTION

Chapter 7: The Origins of Culture and the Emergence of Homo

  • In this edition, the authors have expanded our discussion about ancient DNA studies, as these are contributing significantly to our understanding of human evolution.
  • The new box feature explains how scholars are able to reconstruct ancient environments. A second box discusses research on when hominids first migrated out of Africa

Chapter 8: The Emergence of Homo sapiens

  • In this edition, the authors report on the new hominin species from Denesovia Cave in southern Siberia, and update the discussion of modern human origins based on new DNA evidence.
  • A new box explores the idea that mother-infant communication may have played an important role in the evolution of language.

Chapter 9: The Upper Paleolithic World

  • The authors revised the section on human colonization of North and South America, based on new archaeological sites and genetic research.

Chapter 11: Origins of Cities and States

  • A new box feature discusses the question of whether Cahokia, a pre-Columbian city located near present-day St. Louis, Missouri, was a state.

PART IV: CULTURAL VARIATION

Chapter 12: Culture and Culture Change

  • This chapter has been revised considerably to make it more engaging.
  • new examples on food preferences and taboos are used to illustrate that culture is learned.
  • the section on controversies about the concept of culture has been rewritten.
  • a new section and figure on baby names in the United States illustrates random copying of neutral traits
  • A broader and more historical view of globalization is introduced.  
  • The revolution section now contains a discussion of the Arab Spring and the difficulties of bringing about change by revolution.
  • The second box has been updated and discusses an applied anthropologist’s attempts to accommodate Bedouin needs in designed change programs with the Oman government.

Chapter 13: Culture and the Individual

  • In this extensively revised and updated chapter, we open with a discussion of some of the universals of psychological development, emphasizing the need for psychological research to incorporate research on humans the world over.
  • A new figure is introduced to help explain changes in cognitive development of children.
  • The second box is updated and discusses how schools may consciously and unconsciously teach values by comparing preschools in Japan, China, and the United States.

Chapter 14: Communication and Language

  • In an extensively rewritten section on nonverbal human communication, the authors include new research on handshaking, pheromones, and other communication such as whistle communication.
  • The origins of language section is updated with new research on the FOXP2 gene and  how it relates to the controversy about whether Neandertals had language.
  • In the section on the relationships between language and other aspects of culture, the authors have updated our research on basic color terms and added a new graphic to illustrate variation in terminology.
  • The introduction to that section is updated with discussion of Cree storytelling and Hip-Hop language and the authors have rewritten the code-switching section with new material.
  • The second box, which has been extensively rewritten discusses why some immigrant groups retain their “mother tongues” longer than others.

Chapter 15: Getting Food

  • The authors have expanded the discussion of complex foragers.
  • To put food-getting in better historical perspective, the authors have significantly expanded the discussion of the origin of food production in prehistory–when it occurred and the theories about why it occurred.

Chapter 16: Economic Systems

  • The authors have introduced a body of experimental and observational research providing evidence that sharing and cooperation may be universally associated with pleasure.

Chapter 17: Social Stratification: Class, Ethnicity, and Racism

  • The authors have expanded our section on caste, adding a discussion of occupational caste in Africa.
  • The section on “race” is extensively expanded with a new section on the concept of race in biology
  • The first box on global inequality is extensively rewritten and updated with new material.
  • The second box updates the discussion of why there are disparities in death by disease between African Americans and European Americans.

Chapter 18: Sex, Gender, and Culture

  • This chapter has been extensively rewritten to be more engaging and easier to read with more subheadings for clarity. In the first part of the chapter the authors open with a section on culturally varying gender concepts, including diversity in what genders are recognized.
  • In the first box, updated to reflect recent changes toward women in combat, the authors examine cross-cultural research about why some societies allow women to participate in combat.

Chapter 19: Marriage and the Family

  • A new diagram explaining different types of family structures has been added.
  • The third updated box discusses why one-parent families are on the increase in countries like ours.
  • The fourth box, on the changing family and social security in Japan has been completely rewritten and updated.

Chapter 20: Marital Residence and Kinship

  • This chapter now opens with a new introduction with a piece of poetry from Robert Frost that we hope raises awareness of what it means to be kin.

Chapter 21: Associations and Interest Groups

  • A new introduction beginning with  Hopi fable about common purpose and a new section on the global adoption of social media, such as Facebook, and how these media relate to cultural associations and interest groups.
  • New research on how male age-sets and separate dwelling effect the status of women is also included.
  • The chapter has also been rearranged so that explanations of various types of association follow immediately after they are described and illustrated.
  • The first updated box addresses the question of whether separate women’s associations increase women’s status and power.

Chapter 22: Political Life: Social Order and Disorder

  • The authors have added a new section that discusses the concepts of nation-states, nationalism and political identity. They point out that people living in states may not identify with the state they live in nor have their notion of nationhood correspond to political boundaries.  

Chapter 23: Religion and Magic

  • The authors have added a new theoretical discussion on the need for human cooperation and the recent research that supports that theory.
  • Also added is new research on the relationships between religiosity and stress and anxiety.
  • A new discussion on how most religions began as minority sects or cults has been added.
  • The first box, which is updated, raises the question of whether and to what degree religion promotes moral behavior, cooperation, and harmony.

Chapter 24: The Arts

  • In a new section the authors discuss the problematic and fuzzy distinctions made in labeling some art negatively as “tourist” art versus more positively as “fine” art.

PART V: USING ANTHROPOLOGY

Chapter 25: Practicing and Applying Anthropology

  • The introductory section now explicitly discusses specializations in practicing and applied anthropology such as development anthropology, environmental anthropology, business or organizational anthropology, museum anthropology, cultural resource management, and forensic anthropology.
  • The authors have updated the ethics section with an extended discussion of displacement projects, their risks, and the dilemma of whose lives are actually improved.
  • Greatly expanded the section on anthropologists as advocates and collaborators and updated the forensics section with detail about estimating time of death.
  • The sections on environmental anthropology and business and organizational anthropology are completely new.
  • The first box is new to this chapter and is about how to get development programs to include more women.
  • The second box is new and is about anthropological work to help a car company improve its business culture.

Chapter 26: Health and Illness

  • This chapter concerns itself with cultural understandings of health and illness, the treatment of illness (particularly from a biocultural rather than just a biomedical point of view), varying medical practitioners, and political and economic influences on health.
  • The first box discusses an anthropologist’s attempt to evaluate why an applied medical project didn’t work, and the second updated box explores eating disorders, biology, and the cultural construction of beauty.

Chapter 27: Global Problems

  • In revising the section on natural disasters and the famines that frequently result from them, the authors gave increasing attention to the inequalities that contribute to them.
  • New research on relationships to gender equality is included in the family violence section.
  • In the section on war, the authors discuss changes over the long course of history, the complex relationship between disasters and war, and the increasing attention to how the vulnerability of populations to disasters can be reduced.
  • The first has been extensively reworked and updated and now emphasizes climate change and ways anthropologists can contribute to understanding solutions

 

Features & benefits

Engaging Pedagogically-Driven Design

  • NEW! Learning Objectives have been added to each chapter helping readers to focus on the material ahead.  Chapter-ending summary materials have been completely revised to link back to the Learning Objectives presenting a more clear overview of the important material covered in the chapter.
  • Visually engaging. Fresh, colorful redesign, the illustrations throughout the book visually engages readers throughout. DK maps are referenced throughout the text and appear at the end of the book.
  • NEW! Shorten text. The book length has again been reduced from its original print, now consisting of only 27 chapters. The new length is more focused on key concepts.

 

A Clear Understanding of humans

  • Explores sex and gender issues. Perspectives on Gender boxes explain issues pertaining to sex and gender, both in anthropology and everyday life. Examples includesexism in language; separate women’s associations and women’s status and power; morality in women versus men.
  • NEW! Application of major topics. Applied Anthropology Boxes provide students a better understanding of the vast range of issues to which anthropological knowledge can be usefully applied. These boxes offer an additional way to show how anthropology helps people lead better lives. Significant expansion of practicing anthropology with an expanded chapter and separation of medical anthropology into its own chapter.

 

Focus on Contemporary issues

  • Examines research. Current Research and Issues boxes highlight recent topics that students may have heard about in the news or that are currently being debated in the profession.
  • Immigrants influence on social life. Migrants and Immigrants boxes explore how migration and immigration have impacted recent and contemporary social life.
  • NEW! Environmental issues.  An expanded focus on environmental issues is presented.
Author biography

Carol R. Ember started at Antioch College as a chemistry major. She began taking social science courses because some were required, but she soon found herself intrigued. There were lots of questions without answers, and she became excited about the possibility of a research career in social science. She spent a year in graduate school at Cornell studying sociology before continuing on to Harvard, where she studied anthropology primarily with John and Beatrice Whiting.

 

For her Ph.D. dissertation she worked among the Luo of Kenya. While there she noticed that many boys were assigned “girls’ work,” such as babysitting and household chores, because their mothers (who did most of the agriculture) did not have enough girls to help out. She decided to study the possible effects of task assignment on the social behavior of boys. Using systematic behavior observations, she compared girls, boys who did a great deal of girls’ work, and boys who did little such work. She found that boys assigned girls’ work were intermediate in many social behaviors, compared with the other boys and girls. Later, she did cross-cultural research on variation in marriage, family, descent groups, and war and peace, mainly in collaboration with Melvin Ember, whom she married in 1970. All of these cross-cultural studies tested theories on data for worldwide samples of societies.

 

From 1970 to 1996, she taught at Hunter College of the City University of New York. She has served as president of the Society of Cross-Cultural Research and was one of the directors of the Summer Institutes in Comparative Anthropological Research, which were funded by the National Science Foundation. From 1996 until 2009 she served as executive director of the Human Relations Area Files, Inc. (HRAF), a nonprofit research agency at Yale University. She was appointed President of HRAF in 2010. She is also currently Past-President of the Society for Anthropological Sciences.

 

After graduating from Columbia College, Melvin Ember went to Yale University for his Ph.D. His mentor at Yale was George Peter Murdock, an anthropologist who was instrumental in promoting cross-cultural research and building a full-text database on the cultures of the world to facilitate cross-cultural hypothesis testing. This database came to be known as the Human Relations Area Files (HRAF) because it was originally sponsored by the Institute of Human Relations at Yale. Growing in annual installments and now distributed in electronic format, the HRAF database currently covers more than 410 cultures, past and present, all over the world.

 

Melvin Ember did fieldwork for his dissertation in American Samoa, where he conducted a comparison of three villages to study the effects of commercialization on political life. In addition, he did research on descent groups and how they changed with the increase of buying and selling. His cross-cultural studies focused originally on variation in marital residence and descent groups. He has also done cross-cultural research on the relationship between economic and political development, the origin and extension of the incest taboo, the causes of polygyny, and how archaeological correlates of social customs can help us draw inferences about the past.

 

 

Peter N. Peregrine came to anthropology after completing an undergraduate degree in English. He found anthropology’s social scientific approach to understanding humans more appealing than the humanistic approach he had learned as an English major. He undertook an ethnohistorical study of the relationship between Jesuit missionaries and Native American peoples for his master’s degree and realized that he needed to study archaeology to understand the cultural interactions experienced by Native Americans prior to contact with the Jesuits.

 

While working on his PhD at Purdue University, Peter Peregrine did research on the prehistoric Mississippian cultures of the eastern United States. He found that interactions between groups were common and had been shaping Native American cultures for centuries. Native Americans approached contact with the Jesuits simply as another in a long string of intercultural exchanges. He also found that relatively little research had been done on Native American interactions and decided that comparative research was a good place to begin examining the topic. In 1990, he participated in the Summer Institute in Comparative Anthropological Research, where he met Carol R. Ember and Melvin Ember/

 

Peter Peregrine is professor of anthropology at Lawrence University in Appleton, Wisconsin and external professor at the Santa Fe Institute in Santa Fe, New Mexico. He also serves as research associate for the Human Relations Area Files. He continues to do archaeological research, and to teach anthropology and archaeology to undergraduate students.