Gronlund's Writing Instructional Objectives (8e) : 9780131755932

Gronlund's Writing Instructional Objectives (8e)

Gronlund & Brookhart
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Out of stock
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For courses in Tests and Measurements; and as a supplement to elementary, middle-school, secondary, and K–12 general methods courses.

A unique and classic text, this essential “how to” text again provides a step-by-step guide to writing instructional objectives as intended learning outcomes. The author describes how to state objectives in terms of the type of performance students must demonstrate in order to show that they have achieved the goals of the instruction–and illustrates his recommended methods with numerous examples. Gronlund’s is a specific procedure for writing objectives–one that can be used to achieve all types of learning outcomes and is especially suited to teaching thinking, performance, and problem-solving skills. The book stresses the important role of objectives in the teaching-learning-assessment process–starting from state content standards–and how objectives can be used to improve student learning.  The improvements made to this revision only enhance its usefulness and reputation as the best guide on the market for writing instructional objectives and using them in teaching and assessment.

Table of contents


Chapter 1    Focusing on Intended Learning Outcomes

                    Instructional Objectives as Intended Learning Outcomes

                    Levels of Goals and Objectives

                    Uses of Instructional Objectives

                    Learning Outcomes and the Instructional Process

                    Stating Instructional Objectives as Intended Learning Outcomes

                    What About Standards?

Chapter 2    Obtaining Clear Statements of Instructional Objectives

                    Stating the General Instructional Objectives

                    Selecting the Proper Level of Generality

                    Stating the Specific Learning Outcomes

                    Obtaining a Representative Sample of Specific Learning Outcomes

                    Emphasizing Instructional Intent

                    Keeping the Specific Learning Outcomes Useful for Various Units of Study

                    Using Specific Learning Outcomes in Lesson Planning

                    Making Sure the Specific Learning Outcomes are Relevant

                    Revising the General Objectives as Needed

Chapter 3    Using Objectives in Planning for Teaching and Assessment

                    Planning for Instruction

                    Planning for Assessment

Chapter 4    Content Standards and Instructional Objectives

                    Nature of Content Standards

                    Need for Instructional Objectives

Chapter 5    Considerations in Preparing Instructional Objectives

                    Using a Frame of References as a Guide

                    Other Guides in Preparing Instructional Objectives

                    Considerations in Selecting Instructional Objectives

                    Preparing Instructional Objectives Cooperatively



Chapter 6    Writing Objectives for Knowledge, Comprehension, and Application Outcomes

                    Stating Objectives at the Knowledge, Comprehension, and Application Levels

                    Adapting Statements to Areas of Instruction

                    Adapting Statements to Levels of Instruction

                    The Problem of Limiting Objectivesd to Intellectual Outcomes

Chapter 7    Writing Objectives for Higher-Level Thinking Skills

                    Making a Useful List of Outcomes

                    Adapting Statements to Areas of Instruction

                    Adapting Statements to Levels of Instruction

                    Affective Components of Thinking

Chapter 8    Writing Objectives for Affective Outcomes

                    Basing Statements on the Taxonomy Categories

                    Basing Statements on Traditional Categories

                    Adapting Statements to Areas and Levels of Instruction

                    Deciding If Affective Outcomes Should be Stated Separately

Chapter 9    Writing Performance Objectives for Skills and Products

                    Writing Objectives for Procedure Outcomes

                    Writing Objectives for Product Outcomes

                    Focusing on Both Procedure and Product Outcomes

                    Isolating Performance Skills When Writing Objectives

                    Guidelines for Writing and Using Peformance Objectives for Skills and Products

Chapter 10    Writing Performance Objectives for Problem-Solving Projects

                    Stating Objectives for Restricted Problem-Solving Projects

                    Stating Objectives for Extended Problem-Solving Projects

                    Guidelines for Writing and Using Performance Objectives in Problem-Solving Projects



Chapter 11    Using Objectives in Achievement Testing

                    Preparing the List of Instructional Objectives

                    Outlining the Content

                    Preparing the Table of Specifications

                    Constructing Relevant Test Items

                    Using a Simple Table for Item Writing

                    Using Detailed Specifications for Item Writing

                    Using Objectives for Interpreting Test Results

Chapter 12    Using Objectives in Performance and Affective Assessment

                    Assessing Performance Skills

                    Assessing Affective Outcomes

                    Using Student Portfolios

                    Guidelines for Preparing and Using Assessment Instruments


New to this edition

NEW–Chapter-specific Instructional Objectives, written in the Gronlund format, are found at the beginning of each chapter.

·         Serve as a model and highlight for students the explicit learning goals for the chapter, so that it is clear what they should understand and be able to accomplish after the chapter work is complete.

NEW–Exercises that mirror some of the defined learning outcomes for that chapter have been added at the end of every chapter–Offers readers the opportunity to practice and sharpen their skills.

·         Readers will find the answers to the Exercises in an appendix.

NEW–Added content on how instructional objectives are used with formative and summative assessment.

·         Readers will learn the importance of both types of assessment and how they benefit student achievement.

NEW– Chapter 4, Content Standards and Instructional Objectives addresses the increasing reliance on state content standards in classroom teaching as a basis for writing instructional objectives–Includes new examples from six different states to illustrate this process for students.

·         Readers will gain great insight into the importance and the reality of educational accountability standards and how their classroom instruction must parallel state and district expectations for student learning.

NEW–Bloom’s Taxonomy and The Webb Depth of Knowledge Levels–featured in Chapter Five.

·         Serves as an important resource for teachers as they write instructional objectives intended to teach in alignment with state assessments and state standards. 

Features & benefits
  • Chapter-specific Instructional Objectives, written in the Gronlund format, are found at the beginning of each chapter.  They serve as a model and highlight for students the explicit learning goals for the chapter, so that it is clear what they should understand and be able to accomplish after the chapter work is complete.
  • Each chapter ends with Chapter Summaries and Exercises based on the chapter-specific instructional objectives. These focus student attention on the key content and assist students in self-review of material.
  • Features special material on the use of a table of specifications for item writing.   This material explains how to use a specification table as a simple means of item writing and illustrates how such a table enables the use of objectives for interpreting test results.
  • Additional information and new illustrations on how to prepare assessment instruments.   This information provide ideas for creating unique assessment instruments and offers guidelines for using prepared instruments authentically.
  • Five chapters on writing objectives for specific skills–cognitive, affective, and performance.  These chapters illustrate ways to write instructional objectives that target higher-level thinking skills and include discussion of ways to assess the effectiveness of such objectives.
  • Two chapters on using objectives in constructing and interpreting achievement assessments.   These show future teachers the broad use to which instructional objectives can be put while illustrating their usage in assessing both performance and affective outcomes.
  • Self-checks in early chapters enable students to easily gauge their understanding of chapter material.