Implementing Change: Patterns, Principles, and Potholes (4e) : 9780133351927

Implementing Change: Patterns, Principles, and Potholes (4e)

Hall & Hord
Published by
Pearson Higher Ed USA
Available on demand
Title type

A research-based guide for educators to the practical methods of understanding, evaluating and facilitating the change process.


Significantly revised based on student and instructor feedback, the new Fourth Edition of Implementing Change continues to examine the ways in which change processes are experienced by those "on the ground" while adding new features, new material and the most current research. Based primarily on the Concerns Based Adoption Model (CBAM), this user-friendly text focuses on introducing constructs that can be used by those engaged in facilitating change processes as well as those who are evaluating and studying change.


Rather than maintaining a bird’s eye view of change processes, each chapter introduces a research-based, research-verified construct about change that captures the complexity of implementing change and the diversity of reactions to it. With a stress on pedagogical aids, each chapter incorporates practical examples, sample research, case studies, reflection questions and examples of common roadblocks to change. 

Table of contents

Part I The Context for Implementing Change

Chapter 1 What Key Patterns, Principles, and Lessons Have We Learned About Implementing Change?

Chapter 2 What Actions and Events Are Imperative in Facilitating Implementation?


Part II The People Part of Change: Three Diagnostic Dimensions: Concerns, Using, and Fidelity

Chapter 3 How Can We Clarify the Change?

Chapter 4 How Can the Different Feelings and Perceptions About Change Be Understood and Addressed?

Chapter 5 What Are Characteristic Behavioral Profiles of Implementers?


Part III Leading Change across the Organization

Chapter 6 How Do Leaders Make a Difference in Implementation Success?

Chapter 7 How Does a Culture of Continuous Learning Support Implementation?

Chapter 8 What Can Be Done to Understand a Part of the Change Process That Is Not Controlled by the Leaders or the Followers?


Part IV Different Perspectives for Understanding the Big Picture of Change: Systems, Diffusion, and Organization Development

Chapter 9 How Can Systems Thinking Enhance the Success of Change Efforts?

Chapter 10 How Do Communication Activities and Change Agents Affect Implementation?

Chapter 11 In What Ways Can Team Member Skills and Process Consultants Affect Implementation?


Part V Combining Views: Perspectives, Constructs, Tools, Applications, and Implications

Chapter 12 How Can Change Constructs Be Combined to Understand, Assess, and Lead Efforts to Implement Change?


Appendix A Stages of Concern Questionnaire

Appendix B Stages of Concern Questionnaire Scoring Device

Appendix C Levels of Use of the Innovation

Appendix D Six Dimensions of Change Facilitator Style

Appendix E Change Facilitator Style Questionnaire

Appendix F Change Facilitator Style Questionnaire Scoring Device

Appendix G Example Interventions for Each Stage of Concern





New to this edition

As before, the major construct that is the topic of each chapter is evidence-based. For this edition, up-to-date citations from research have been inserted with each construct, tool, and application. The findings from important recent research studies are reported, such as the first studies linking Change Facilitator Style of school principals with student test scores.


Also New to This Edition:

  • NEW. The story of East Lake School District feature.  Instead of each chapter having independent vignettes and anecdotes, the same district and school context with the same staff are used within each chapter.  With this approach it is possible to illustrate how the different constructs and tools can be used simultaneously.
  • Increased focus on implementing change in schools and school districts.  This does not mean that the constructs and tools do not apply in business and other settings. Narrowing the context is intended as a way to keep examples and illustrations simple.
  • A set of Learning Outcomes are stated at the beginning of each chapter to help the reader focus on the key ideas.
  • The flow across the chapters is organized to move from the individual implementer, to teams/groups, to whole organizations (schools/districts), and then to large systems, e.g. states.
  • Chapter 12: How Can Change Constructs Be Combind to Understand, Assess, and Lead Efforts to Implement Change? has over fifty percent new material with a much heavier focus on implementation assessment, program evaluation, and research.  Also new to the last chapter is examination of the increasingly important topic, or should we say dilemma, of sustaining change.

  • New chapter features include: “Indicators of the chapter’s construct,” “Implications of the chapter’s construct for Change Leaders and Facilitators,” Applying the chapter’s construct in Facilitating Implementation,” and “Applying the chapter’s construct in Research and Program Evaluation Studies.”
  • In this edition the Concerns Based Adoption Model (CBAM)  is used as the overarching framework with the first eleven chapters examining a particular construct or perspective in depth.  The last chapter then applies various combinations of the constructs and perspectives.
  • NEW! Several increasingly important topics have been added including capacity in Chapter 9, sustainability in Chapter 12, and interpreting whole group data in Chapters 4 and 12.
Features & benefits
  • Part I, The first chapter in each edition has presented a set of change principles
  • Part II introduces the threeDiagnostic Dimensions of CBAM (pronounced “see-bam”). Each is an evidence-based construct with related tools that can be used to facilitate, evaluate, and research implementation initiatives.
  • Part III presents chapters and constructs that address factors related toimplementing change at the organization level.
  • Part IV chapters introduce three other perspectives for understanding change that are classics. Each has an extensive history of research, model building, and applications. Each also offers a number of tools that can be used to facilitate, study, and evaluate change efforts.
  • Chapters 1through 11 build from theindividual to the group to whole organization and system views. In the last chapter, Chapter 12, the authors review and extend applications of the constructs that were introduced in the previous chapters. 
  • At the end of each chapter are a number of Discussion Questions and two suggestions for “Applications.”  One set of suggestions is about change facilitating activiites that you could try.  The other are suggestions for research and evaluation activities.
  • Learning Outcomes at the beginning of each chapter to help readers focus on key topics in each chapter.
  • "Indictor's"  and "Implications for Change Facilitators" features aid readers in remembering and highlighting key points.
  • NEW! Each chapter, except Chapter 12, present a story about how that chapter’s key ideas could come alive in the Eastlake School District case.
  • The main topic of each chapter is presentation of key change construct or perspective that is evidence-based.  The construct is introduced along with the supporting research.  The measurement tool(s) is described along with summaries of key study findings.

Author biography
About the Authors

Gene E. Hall, Ph.D., School of Environmental and Public Affairs, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, has been a full professor at four universities and served as the Dean of the College of Education at two universities. Dr. Hall is internationally recognized for his career-long focus on developing new understandings about the change process in organization settings. He regularly serves as a consultant for schools, school districts, businesses, and state leaders on the implementation of various innovations and change processes from a Concerns-Based perspective. In addition to his work in the United States, he regularly collaborates with colleagues in other countries and serves on doctoral committees in relation to facilitating, evaluating, and studying change processes. His more recent research has examined relationships between Change Facilitator Style of leaders and outcomes such as increases in student learning. Dr. Hall has had a parallel academic career in regard to innovation in and national accreditation of teacher education. He is a co-author of The Foundations of American Education (Pearson) now in its 16th edition, and the lead author of Introduction to Teaching: Making a Difference in Student Learning (SAGE).


Shirley M. Hord, Ph.D. was the first Scholar Emerita at the Southwest Educational Development Laboratory, and is currently Scholar Laureate, in association with Learning Forward (previously, National Staff Development Council). She authors articles and books on school-based professional development, school change and improvement, and professional learning communities. A sampling of her publications are Implementing Change: Patterns, Principles, and Potholes with Gene Hall; Learning Together, Leading Together: Changing Schools Through Professional Learning Communities, Teachers College Press (2004); with Patricia Roy, Moving NSDC’s Staff Development Standards Into Practice: Innovation Configurations, National Staff Development Council (2003); Leading Professional Learning Communities:Voices from Research and Practice, Corwin Press (2008); and with Edward Tobia, Reclaiming Our Teaching Profession: The Power of Learning in Community, Teachers College Press (2012). In addition to working with educators at all levels across the United States, Canada, and Mexico, Dr. Hord serves as an educational consultant worldwide, in Asia, Europe, Australia, and Africa.