Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction (11e) : 9780133591316

Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction (11e)

Schmalleger
 
Edition
 
11
ISBN
 
9780133591316
ISBN 10
 
013359131X
Published
 
24/12/2014
Published by
 
Pages
 
528
Format
 
Out of stock
 
Title type
 
 
 
Description

For courses in Introduction to Criminal Justice

 

The gold standard for criminal justice texts

Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, Eleventh Edition offers a contemporary, authoritative look at crime in America with a focus on police, courts, and corrections. To make information resonate with students, Schmalleger asks readers to consider the balance between freedom and security issues and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the American justice system as it adapts to cultural, political, and societal changes.

Table of contents
  • PART 1 Crime in America
  • 1. What Is Criminal Justice?
  • 2. The Crime Picture
  • 3. Criminal Law
  • PART 2 Policing
  • 4. Policing: Purpose and Organization
  • 5. Policing: Legal Aspects
  • 6. Policing: Issues and Challenges
  • PART 3 Adjudication
  • 7. The Courts
  • 8. The Courtroom Work Group and the Criminal Trial
  • 9. Sentencing
  • PART 4 Corrections
  • 10. Probation, Parole, and Community Corrections
  • 11. Prisons and Jails
  • 12. Prison Life
  • PART 5 The Juvenile Justice System
  • 13. Juvenile Justice
New to this edition
Engage students with a unifying, thought-provoking theme: Freedom vs. Safety
  • Highlight cost-effective criminal justice strategies. Paying for it boxes emphasize the financial realities of today’s world, including the need of justice system components to deal with budget shortfalls and limits on available resources. New topics include:
    • Policing in an economic downturn (Chapter 4)
    • Cost-efficient policing (Chapter 6)
    • Cost-efficient courts (Chapter 8)
    • Cost-efficient corrections and sentencing
  • Introduce readers to contemporary methods for including the effectiveness of crime reduction and intervention efforts in an effort to identify “what works”. Evidence-based practices are introduced in early chapters and the concept is reinforced throughout the text. Instructors can use the evidence-based materials to show how only “best practices” and programs that “work” can be identified and implemented in order to use resources effectively.
    • Increased emphasis on evidence-based strategies (Chapter 1)
    • Evidence-based policy and practice in probation and parole (Chapter 10)
  • Showcase real people working in the justice system. CJ Careers boxes outline the characteristics of a variety of criminal justice careers in a Q&A format, to introduce students to an assortment of potential career options. Some new careers highlighted include:
    • medicolegal death investigation (Chapter 9)
    • patrol officer (Chapter 10)

Bring students the most up-to-date information possible
Criminal justice is an area that changes very rapidly–Schmalleger's coverage is current and relevant, and stays on top of the most recent developments to bring students the most up-to-date information possible.

  • Focus on the most pressing and current issues in criminal justice. CJ News boxes present case stories from the media to bring a true-to-life dimension to the study of criminal justice and allow insight into the everyday workings of the justice system. All CJ news boxes are now author-created content. Some current topics include: surveillance technology; the use of body-worn cameras; police fusion centers; the rule of law; causes of crime; and GPS systems used with probationers and parolees.
  • The rise of non-traditional crimes in the digital age. Chapter 2 discusses the changing nature of crime and criminal offenses, including new forms of crime.
  • Contemporary coverage of gun crime and control. The gun control debate is substantially updated and expanded in Chapter 2.
  • The most current information available as to the prevalence of crime and the success of crime-fighting efforts. All data from the FBI, Bureau of Justice Statistics, the federal Bureau of Prisons, the Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts, and other state and federal agencies is completely updated.
  • Coverage of the latest court cases. Many new court cases, including many involving U.S. Supreme court decisions, are included in this edition. They include Holder v.  Humanitarian Law Project, Baily v. U.S.,Howes v.  Fields, Perry v. New Hampshire,  Harris v. U.S., Gall v. U.S., Minneci v. Pollard, Florence v. Burlington County, Miller v. Alabama.
  • New discussions in this edition include:
    • random shooters and mass shootings; declining rates of traditional crimes, contrasting them with increasing innovative criminal schemes involving computers and other digital devices; the idea of sustainable justice–or criminal justice practices and institutions that are affordable now and into the future (Chapter 1)
    • the VAWA reauthorization legislation of 2013; grand theft (Chapter 2)
    • stand your ground laws, and the Florida case of George Zimmerman; defense of police fraud; espionage (Chapter 3)
    • the proportion of female FBI agents; the Smart Policing Initiative (SPI), a project of the federal Bureau of Justice Assistance (Chapter 4)
    • the National Institute of Justice’s Electronic Crime Technology Center of Excellence (ECTCoE), which assists in building electronic crime prevention and investigation and digital evidence collection and examination capacity of state and local law enforcement (Chapter 5)
    • Garrity rights–which are protections that officers have against self-incrimination in the face of questioning (Chapter 6)
    • specialized courts (Chapter 7)
    • 2013 report submitted to Congress by the U.S. Sentencing Commission; 2012 review of the effects of three-strikes legislation; recent changes in California’s three-strikes law; concept of justice reinvestment; recent report by the National Center for State Courts, which identified factors that increase the likelihood of reoffending; two new paragraphs describe efforts to reintroduce a Victims’ Rights Amendment to the U.S. Constitution into Congress; particularly those in Illinois, Connecticut, and Maryland; the findings of a recent report by the National Registry of Exonerations; a 2012 summary of studies of the deterrent effect of the death penalty; the  findings of a new USA Today/Gallup national poll about the death penalty  (Chapter 9)
    • the impact of California’s 2011 Criminal Justice Realignment Act on probation and parole services and populations in that state; the findings of a comprehensive review of state parole practices in California; new federal Probation and Pretrial Services Automated Case Tracking System (PACTS); the findings of a large NIJ-funded study of more than 5,000 Florida offenders placed on GPS monitoring; the poor reintegration of prisoners into the community is discussed and workable types of reintegration methods are described, including reentry courts (Chapter 10)
    • annual costs to incarcerate an inmate in prison in California for 2010—2013; impact of California’s 2011 Criminal Justice Realignment Act on rates of imprisonment as well as on the processing of convicted offenders and jail expansion in California; a new box entitled “The Prison Population” includes the topics“Who’s in Prison and Why?” and “How Many People Are in Prison?”; the principle of selective incarceration is discussed, and efforts by states to reduce their prison populations (Chapter 11)
    • BOP efforts to share intelligence information about suspected or known terrorists in its inmate population with other criminal justice agencies; the United Nations Rules for the Treatment of Women Prisoners and Non-custodial Measures for Women Offenders, more commonly known as “the Bangkok Rules,”  (Chapter 12)
    • discussion of a 2012 Georgetown Center on Poverty, Inequality and Public Policy, report on improving the juvenile justice system for girls; the recent movement to focus more on the differences between the brains of children and those of adults, along with new understandings of juveniles’ developmental needs; the National Center for Youth in Custody (NC4YC), launched in 2010 with support from the OJJDP; evidence-based juvenile justice; the National Girls Institute (NGI) funded by a partnership between the National Council on Crime and Delinquency (NCCD) and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP); the NCCD’s Center for Girls and Young Women; the research results of a new study, “Reforming Juvenile Justice: A Developmental Approach,” (Chapter 13)
  • Updated and expanded coverage of important topics include:
    • discussion of spree killers; the section on drug crime has been revised to include recognition of marijuana legalization in Colorado and Washington states (Chapter 2)
    • Islamic Law (Chapter 3)
    • police fusion centers; private security and Interpol (Chapter 4)
    • digital media and computer searches (Chapter 5)
    • video recordings of police activity by the public (Chapter 6)
    • community courts; plea bargaining (Chapter 7)
    • recent revisions to state capital punishment statutes, particularly those in Illinois, Connecticut, and Maryland (Chapter 9)
    • prison boot camp programs; federally sponsored SVORI programs; the Second Chance Act  (Chapter 10)
    • the philosophy of imprisonment (Chapter 11)
    • the section on prison riots includes a disturbance in 2009 at the Northpoint Training Center in Kentucky; prison gangs, or security threat groups (Chapter 12)
    • characteristics of juveniles in confine (Chapter 13)
Features & benefits
Engage students with a unifying, thought-provoking theme: Freedom vs. Safety

In a time when the issue of freedom vs. safety has never been more critical, students must think critically about the criminal justice system. To promote classroom debate, and help readers contextualize the theory, Schmalleger continually asks: How should our society and the criminal justice system balance individual freedoms with the need for public safety?

  • Spark discussion using concrete examples. Freedom or Safety? You Decide boxes highlight the theme of individual rights versus public order and illustrate some of the personal rights issues that challenge policymakers today. Each box includes critical-thinking questions.
  • UPDATED: Highlight cost-effective criminal justice strategies. Paying for it boxes emphasize the financial realities of today’s world, including the need of justice system components to deal with budget shortfalls and limits on available resources. New topics include:
    • Policing in an economic downturn (Chapter 4)
    • Cost-efficient policing (Chapter 6)
    • Cost-efficient courts (Chapter 8)
    • Cost-efficient corrections and sentencing
  • NEW: Introduce readers to contemporary methods for including the effectiveness of crime reduction and intervention efforts in an effort to identify “what works”. Evidence-based practices are introduced in early chapters and the concept is reinforced throughout the text. Instructors can use the evidence-based materials to show how only “best practices” and programs that “work” can be identified and implemented in order to use resources effectively.
    • Increased emphasis on evidence-based strategies (Chapter 1)
    • Evidence-based policy and practice in probation and parole (Chapter 10)
  • UPDATED: Showcase real people working in the justice system. CJ Careers boxes outline the characteristics of a variety of criminal justice careers in a Q&A format, to introduce students to an assortment of potential career options. Some new careers highlighted include:
    • medicolegal death investigation (Chapter 9)
    • patrol officer (Chapter 10)
  • Explore the impact of multiculturalism. Multiculturalism and Diversity boxes consider the impact of American multiculturalism on the justice system and on its participants.
  • Showcase ethical ideals. Ethics and Professionalism boxes present ethical codes that criminal justice practitioners are asked to uphold, highlighting the vital role of moral and ethical standards and behavior in their daily lives and to the high social expectations inherent in justice-related careers.

Bring students the most up-to-date information possible
Timeliness is essential in a criminal justice text. Criminal justice is an area that changes very rapidly—Schmalleger's coverage is current and relevant, and stays on top of the most recent developments to bring students the most up-to-date information possible.

  • UPDATED: Focus on the most pressing and current issues in criminal justice. CJ News boxes present case stories from the media to bring a true-to-life dimension to the study of criminal justice and allow insight into the everyday workings of the justice system. All CJ news boxes are now author-created content. Some current topics include: surveillance technology; the use of body-worn cameras; police fusion centers; the rule of law; causes of crime; and GPS systems used with probationers and parolees.
  • NEW: The rise of non-traditional crimes in the digital age. Chapter 2 discusses the changing nature of crime and criminal offenses, including new forms of crime.
  • UPDATED: Contemporary coverage of gun crime and control. The gun control debate is substantially updated and expanded in Chapter 2.
  • UPDATED: The most current information available as to the prevalence of crime and the success of crime-fighting efforts. All data from the FBI, Bureau of Justice Statistics, the federal Bureau of Prisons, the Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts, and other state and federal agencies is completely updated.
  • NEW: Coverage of the latest court cases. Many new court cases, including many involving U.S. Supreme court decisions, are included in this edition. They include Holder v.  Humanitarian Law Project, Baily v. U.S.,Howes v.  Fields, Perry v. New Hampshire,  Harris v. U.S., Gall v. U.S., Minneci v. Pollard, Florence v. Burlington County, Miller v. Alabama.
  • NEW: New discussions in this edition include:
    • random shooters and mass shootings; declining rates of traditional crimes, contrasting them with increasing innovative criminal schemes involving computers and other digital devices; the idea of sustainable justice—or criminal justice practices and institutions that are affordable now and into the future (Chapter 1)
    • the VAWA reauthorization legislation of 2013; grand theft (Chapter 2)
    • stand your ground laws, and the Florida case of George Zimmerman; defense of police fraud; espionage (Chapter 3)
    • the proportion of female FBI agents; the Smart Policing Initiative (SPI), a project of the federal Bureau of Justice Assistance (Chapter 4)
    • the National Institute of Justice’s Electronic Crime Technology Center of Excellence (ECTCoE), which assists in building electronic crime prevention and investigation and digital evidence collection and examination capacity of state and local law enforcement (Chapter 5)
    • Garrity rights—which are protections that officers have against self-incrimination in the face of questioning (Chapter 6)
    • specialized courts (Chapter 7)
    • 2013 report submitted to Congress by the U.S. Sentencing Commission; 2012 review of the effects of three-strikes legislation; recent changes in California’s three-strikes law; concept of justice reinvestment; recent report by the National Center for State Courts, which identified factors that increase the likelihood of reoffending; two new paragraphs describe efforts to reintroduce a Victims’ Rights Amendment to the U.S. Constitution into Congress; particularly those in Illinois, Connecticut, and Maryland; the findings of a recent report by the National Registry of Exonerations; a 2012 summary of studies of the deterrent effect of the death penalty; the  findings of a new USA Today/Gallup national poll about the death penalty  (Chapter 9)
    • the impact of California’s 2011 Criminal Justice Realignment Act on probation and parole services and populations in that state; the findings of a comprehensive review of state parole practices in California; new federal Probation and Pretrial Services Automated Case Tracking System (PACTS); the findings of a large NIJ-funded study of more than 5,000 Florida offenders placed on GPS monitoring; the poor reintegration of prisoners into the community is discussed and workable types of reintegration methods are described, including reentry courts (Chapter 10)
    • annual costs to incarcerate an inmate in prison in California for 2010–2013; impact of California’s 2011 Criminal Justice Realignment Act on rates of imprisonment as well as on the processing of convicted offenders and jail expansion in California; a new box entitled “The Prison Population” includes the topics“Who’s in Prison and Why?” and “How Many People Are in Prison?”; the principle of selective incarceration is discussed, and efforts by states to reduce their prison populations (Chapter 11)
    • BOP efforts to share intelligence information about suspected or known terrorists in its inmate population with other criminal justice agencies; the United Nations Rules for the Treatment of Women Prisoners and Non-custodial Measures for Women Offenders, more commonly known as “the Bangkok Rules,”  (Chapter 12)
    • discussion of a 2012 Georgetown Center on Poverty, Inequality and Public Policy, report on improving the juvenile justice system for girls; the recent movement to focus more on the differences between the brains of children and those of adults, along with new understandings of juveniles’ developmental needs; the National Center for Youth in Custody (NC4YC), launched in 2010 with support from the OJJDP; evidence-based juvenile justice; the National Girls Institute (NGI) funded by a partnership between the National Council on Crime and Delinquency (NCCD) and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP); the NCCD’s Center for Girls and Young Women; the research results of a new study, “Reforming Juvenile Justice: A Developmental Approach,” (Chapter 13)
  • UPDATED: Updated and expanded coverage of important topics include:
    • discussion of spree killers; the section on drug crime has been revised to include recognition of marijuana legalization in Colorado and Washington states (Chapter 2)
    • Islamic Law (Chapter 3)
    • police fusion centers; private security and Interpol (Chapter 4)
    • digital media and computer searches (Chapter 5)
    • video recordings of police activity by the public (Chapter 6)
    • community courts; plea bargaining (Chapter 7)
    • recent revisions to state capital punishment statutes, particularly those in Illinois, Connecticut, and Maryland (Chapter 9)
    • prison boot camp programs; federally sponsored SVORI programs; the Second Chance Act  (Chapter 10)
    • the philosophy of imprisonment (Chapter 11)
    • the section on prison riots includes a disturbance in 2009 at the Northpoint Training Center in Kentucky; prison gangs, or security threat groups (Chapter 12)
    • characteristics of juveniles in confine (Chapter 13)
Author biography

Frank Schmalleger, Ph.D., is Distinguished Professor Emeritus at the University of North Carolina at Pembroke. He holds degrees from the University of Notre Dame and The Ohio State University, having earned both a master's (1970) and a doctorate in sociology (1974) from The Ohio State University with a special emphasis in criminology. From 1976 to 1994, he taught criminology and criminal justice courses at the University of North Carolina at Pembroke. For the last 16 of those years, he chaired the university's Department of Sociology, Social Work, and Criminal Justice. The university named him Distinguished Professor in 1991.


Schmalleger has taught in the online graduate program of the New School for Social Research, helping build the world's first electronic classrooms in support of distance learning through computer telecommunications. As an adjunct professor with Webster University in St. Louis, Missouri, Schmalleger helped develop the university's graduate program in security administration and loss prevention. He taught courses in that curriculum for more than a decade.  An avid Web user and website builder, Schmalleger is also the creator of a number of award-winning websites, including some that support this textbook.


Frank Schmalleger is the author of numerous articles and more than 40 books, including the widely used Criminal Justice Today (Pearson, 2015), Criminology Today (Pearson, 2015), and Criminal Law Today (Pearson, 2014).


Schmalleger is also founding editor of the journal Criminal Justice Studies. He has served as editor for the Pearson series Criminal Justice in the Twenty-First Century and as imprint adviser for Greenwood Publishing Group's criminal justice reference series. Schmalleger's philosophy of both teaching and writing can be summed up in these words: "In order to communicate knowledge we must first catch, then hold, a person's interest—be it student, colleague, or policymaker. Our writing, our speaking, and our teaching must be relevant to the problems facing people today, and they must in some way help solve those problems."