3D User Interfaces: Theory and Practice (2e) : 9780134034324

3D User Interfaces: Theory and Practice (2e)

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Pearson Higher Ed USA
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From video games to mobile augmented reality, 3D interaction is everywhere. But simply choosing to use 3D input or 3D displays isn't enough: 3D user interfaces (3D UIs) must be carefully designed for optimal user experience. 3D User Interfaces: Theory and Practice, Second Edition is today's most comprehensive primary reference to building outstanding 3D UIs. Four pioneers in 3D user interface research and practice have extensively expanded and updated this book, making it today's definitive source for all things related to state-of-the-art 3D interaction.

This edition goes far beyond VR, covering the full spectrum of emerging applications for 3D UIs, and presenting an extraordinary array of pioneering techniques and technologies. The authors combine theoretical foundations, analysis of devices and techniques, empirically validated design guidelines, and much more. Throughout each chapter, they illustrate key concepts with running case studies on gaming, mobile AR, and robot teleoperation.

You'll find authoritative, accessible coverage of all this, and much more:

  • Essentials of HCI and human factors (for thousands of students and practitioners now entering the field)
  • How 3D UIs have evolved, and the "hard problems" that remain
  • 3D UIs in console gaming, VR, augmented reality (AR), robot teleoperation, mobile/wearable computers, and remote collaboration
  • How 3D input/output enables users to perceive and act much as they do in the physical world
  • 3D output devices, including visual, auditory, haptic, and tactile displays
  • 3D input devices, including traditional, special purpose, and direct human input via biosignals (e.g., brain input)
  • 3D interaction techniques for common tasks such as selection, manipulation, navigation, and system control
  • Strategies for designing and developing 3D UIs, including the use of 2D interaction; "magic" vs. "natural" interaction techniques; multimodal interaction, and two-handed interaction
  • Evaluating existing 3D UIs, and previewing their future
Table of contents

Part I: Background and Introduction
1. Introduction to 3D Interaction
2. 3D User Interfaces: History and Roadmap


Part II: HCI and Human Factors Basics
3. General Principles of Human-Computer Interaction
4. Human Factors Fundamentals


Part III: 3D Interaction Technology
5. 3D Output Devices
6. 3D Input Devices


Part IV: Interaction Techniques for Common 3D Tasks
7. Selection and Manipulation
8. Navigation
9. System Control


Part V: Designing and Developing 3D User Interfaces
10. Strategies for Designing and Developing 3D User Interfaces
11. Evaluation of 3D User Interfaces


Part V: The Future of 3D User Interfaces
12. The Future of 3D Interfaces

New to this edition

This extensively updated Second Edition adds coverage of new 3D UI systems, trends, technologies, and advances; and will more consistently cover practical issues by introducing three case studies that run throughout the book. It fully reflects major advances, including new generations of interactive systems that have been introduced throughout consumer, research, and industry sectors.


Moving beyond its earlier strict focus on VR, this edition reflects today's far wider applications of 3D technology. The authors have revisited and extended this book's theoretical sections with new insights, updating the examples, and adding novel areas of research. In particular, they focus on true 3D spatial user interfaces where a user's position and orientation is known, and examines research areas that have rapidly grown since the first edition. These include:

  • Mobile augmented reality
  • Novel tactile and haptic displays
  • Gaming
  • Human-robot interaction and tele-operation
  • Collaborative systems
Author biography

Joseph J. LaViola Jr. is the Charles N. Millican Faculty Fellow and Associate professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and directs the Interactive Systems and User Experience Research Cluster of Excellence at the University of Central Florida. He is the director of the modeling and simulation graduate program and is also an adjunct associate research professor in the Computer Science Department at Brown University. His primary research interests include pen-based interactive computing, 3D spatial interfaces, human-robot interaction, multimodal interaction, and user interface evaluation. His work has appeared in journals such as ACM TOCHI, IEEE PAMI, Presence, and IEEE Computer Graphics & Applications, and he has presented research at conferences including ACM CHI, ACM IUI, IEEE Virtual Reality, and ACM SIGGRAPH.  Joseph received a Sc.M. in Computer Science in 2000, a Sc.M. in Applied Mathematics in 2001, and a Ph.D. in Computer Science in 2005 from Brown University.

Ernst Kruijff is a senior researcher at the Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University of applied sciences, where he heads the 3DMi group. The group focuses on the human-factors driven design of multisensory 3D user interfaces. Previously, Ernst worked at Graz University of Technology and Fraunhofer IMK, where he coordinated several large German and European research projects in the field of virtual and augmented reality. He received his PhD (with honours) from Graz University of Technology, and an M.A. from Utrecht University, Netherlands. His work has been presented at conferences such as IEEE VR and ISMAR, ACM SIGGRAPH, CHI and VRST.

Ryan P. McMahan is an Assistant Professor of Computer Science and of Arts and Technology at UT Dallas. He directs the Future Immersive Virtual Environments (FIVE) Lab. His research focuses on using immersive VR technologies to promote learning and to provide training solutions that are better than real-world exercises. His other research interests include portable immersive technologies, multimodal sensory displays, natural 3D interaction techniques, and principles of human-computer interaction. He has several publications on his VR research, including articles in the Communications of the ACM and IEEE Computer. Prior to joining UT Dallas, he was the Interim Director of the Duke Immersive Virtual Environment (DiVE) at Duke University. He received is Ph.D. in Computer Science from Virginia Tech in December 2011. He also received his B.S. and M.S. in Computer Science from Virginia Tech in 2004 and 2007.

Doug A. Bowman is Professor of Computer Science at Virginia Tech, where he directs the 3D Interaction Research Group and the Center for Human-Computer Interaction. He earned his M.S. and Ph.D. in Computer Science from Georgia Tech. His research interests include 3D user interfaces, 3D interaction techniques for virtual reality, the effects of fidelity in VR systems, and large high-resolution displays. He was awarded a National Science Foundation CAREER grant for his work on domain specific 3D user interfaces. He has published more than 100 articles in peer-reviewed journals and conferences, and was named a Distinguished Scientist by the ACM in 2010.

Ivan Poupyrev is a Technical Program Lead working on advanced interaction research in the Advanced Technology and Products (ATAP) division at Google. He formerly worked at Disney Research Labs in Pittsburgh and the Sony Computer Science Labs in Japan. He spent two years at the Human Interface Technology Laboratory at the University of Washington as a Visiting Scientist designing and investigating 3D user interfaces. His current research interests are in designing and investigating advanced interfaces between humans and machines, including 3D interfaces, augmented reality interfaces, ubiquitous and wearable interfaces. Results of his work have been presented at conferences such as UIST, CHI, SIGGRAPH, EUROGRAPHICS, VRAIS and others. He received a Ph.D. in Computer Science from Hiroshima University, Japan and an M.S. in Applied Mathematics and Computer Science from Moscow Airspace University, Soviet Union.