Introduction to Animal Science: Global, Biological, Social and Industry Perspectives VitalSource eBook (6e) : 9780134437385

Introduction to Animal Science: Global, Biological, Social and Industry Perspectives VitalSource eBook (6e)

 
Edition
 
6
ISBN
 
9780134437385
ISBN 10
 
0134437381
Published
 
20/04/2017
Published by
 
Pearson Higher Ed USA
Pages
 
Format
 
 
Title type
eBook
$63.00
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About the book

For courses in Introduction to Animal Science (Agriculture)

A flexible, current, and comprehensive look at the biological, industry, and species approaches to Animal Science, complete with worldview information and societal issues.

Relevant and timely, Introduction to Animal Science features the most comprehensive, up-to-date coverage of the traditional disciplines that are so essential to a solid foundation in Animal Science: nutrition, digestion, feeds, genetics, reproduction, disease, and animal behavior. The text's comprehensive, non-traditional approach introduces the discipline as an ever-changing, integral part of every aspect of human existence. Author W. Stephen Damron not only presents thorough coverage of the major species and their respective concerns, he challenges readers to consider the many pressing interests relevant to Animal Science as it influences and is influenced by society today.

The Sixth Edition features updated, expanded, and improved coverage including the latest statistical information as appropriate; improvements to the lactation chapter, the animal health chapter, and the animal health sections in each of the species chapters; substantial updates in the biotechnology chapter and the nutrition chapters; enhanced material on food safety; new figures and redesigned and updated graphics throughout; streamlined tables with greater emphasis on example information; and enhanced margin terms and glossary terms to facilitate reading and understanding of the material.

Table of contents
Preface
PART ONE: THE PLACE OF ANIMALS AND ANIMAL SCIENCE IN THE LIVES OF HUMANS
1. Introduction to the Animal Sciences
Learning Objectives
Key Terms
Introduction
Animal Science Specialties
Animal Distribution
Contributions of Animals to Humanity
Food Source
Other Uses
The Future of Livestock Production
Summary and Conclusion
Study Questions
References
2. The Value of Animals to Humanity
Learning Objectives
Key Terms
Introduction
The Food Uses of Agricultural Animals
Red Meat and Poultry Production
Edible Slaughter By-Products
Milk and Milk Products
Poultry and Eggs
Miscellaneous Food Uses
The Value of Animal Products in the Human Diet
The Nonfood Uses of Agricultural Animals
Body Coverings
Power Sources
Body Wastes
Pest and Weed Control
Storage of Capital and Food
Cultural Uses
Nonfood or Inedible Slaughter By-Products
Human Health Research
Income
Conservation
Summary and Conclusion
Study Questions
References
3. Factors Affecting World Agricultural Structure
Learning Objectives
Key Terms
Introduction
Adaptation
Artificial Environments
Adaptive Changes
Climatic Environments of the World
Tropical Climates
Deserts
Cold Environments
Temperate Climates
Social and Cultural Differences
Religion
Levels of Economic Development
Levels of Agricultural Development
Economic Institutions and Agricultural
Development
Summary and Conclusion
Study Questions
References
4. Worldwide Systems of Agricultural Production
Learning Objectives
Key Terms
Introduction
Nomadism and Transhumance
Shifting Cultivation and Rudimentary Sedentary
Tillage
Paddy Rice Farming
Peasant Grain, Tuber, and Livestock Farming
Ranching
Commercial Crop and Livestock Farming
Commercial Livestock Finishing
Commercial Dairy Farming
Commercial Grain Farming
Mediterranean Agriculture
Market Gardening
Commercial Plantation
Urban Agriculture
Aquaculture
Developed Versus Subsistence Agriculture
Comparison of the Livestock Industry in the Developed and the Developing Countries
Summary and Conclusion
Study Questions
References
PART TWO: THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES OF ANIMAL SCIENCE
5. Introduction To Nutrition
Learning Objectives
Key Terms
Introduction
Nutrients and their Uses
Body Functions and Nutrient Needs
Feed Analysis
Determining the Value of Feedstuffs to Animals
Expressing Feed Composition on a Dry-Matter (DM) Basis
Measures of Energy
Energy Content of Nutrients
Efficiency of Energy Use
Nutrient Requirements
Ration Formulation
Summary and Conclusion
Study Questions
References
6. The Gastrointestinal Tract and Nutrition
Learning Objectives
Key Terms
Introduction
Classification of Digestive Systems
An Overview of the Steps of Digestion
Digestion in the Pig
Digestion in the Ruminant
The Fermentation Process
Advantages and Disadvantages of the Ruminant System
Digestion in the Avian
Digestion in the Horse
Summary and Conclusion
Study Questions
References
7. Feedstuffs Classification
Learning Objectives
Key Terms
Introduction
Feedstuff Categories
Dry Forages and Roughages
Pasture, Range Plants, and Green Forages
Silages
Characteristics
Energy Feeds
Protein Supplements
Mineral and Vitamin Supplements
Nonnutritive Additives
Summary and Conclusion
Study Questions
References
8. Genetics
Learning Objectives
Key Terms
Introduction
The Gene
Principles of Inheritance
Mitosis and Meiosis
Mitosis
Meiosis
Gene Expression
Dominant and Recessive Expression
Codominance
Incomplete Dominance
Epistasis
Multiple Alleles
Testcrossing
Sex-Related Inheritance
Sex-Linked Inheritance
Sex-Influenced Inheritance
Sex-Limited Traits
Population Genetics
Gene Frequency
Animal Breeding and Population Genetics
Mutation and Genetic Drift
Migration and Selection
Quantity Versus Quality Traits
Qualitative and Quantitative Traits
Heritability
Systems of Mating
Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering
Summary and Conclusion
Study Questions
References
9. Animal Breeding
Learning Objectives
Key Terms
Introduction
Beef Cattle Genetic Improvement
Heritability
Genetic Correlations
Performance Information
Genetic Evaluation, Breeding Value, and Expected Progeny Difference
Growth Trait EPDs
Breed Average EPD and Base Year
Accuracy
Possible Change
Sire Summaries
Maternal Trait EPDs
Milk EPD
Combined Maternal EPD
Carcass EPD
Mature Size
Use of EPDs
Use of EPDs for Selection in Seedstock Herds
Use of EPDs for Selection in Commercial Herds
Pedigree Estimated EPDs
Across-Breed EPDs
EPDs and Crossbreeding
Dairy Cattle Genetic Improvement
Heritability Estimates
Associations Among Traits
Goal Setting and Trait Emphasis
Genetic Evaluation Procedures
DHI System
Animal Model
Sire Selection
Swine Genetic Improvement
Performance Information
Genetic Parameters
Breeding Value and Expected Progeny Difference
Swine Breeds
Stages
Sheep Genetic Improvement
Breed and Breed Types
Selection
National Sheep Improvement Program (NSIP)
Heterosis in Sheep Breeding
Summary and Conclusion
Study Questions
References
10. Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering
Learning Objectives
Key Terms
Introduction
Nuts and Bolts of Genetic Engineering
Restriction Enzymes
Gene Cloning
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Gene Mapping
Biotechnology and/or Genetically Engineered Organisms
Applications of Biotechnology
Micropropagation
Transgenic animals
Livestock
Agricultural Applications
Disease Resistance
Biomedical Applications
Transgenic Pets
Medicine
Genetic Testing
Gene Therapy
Pharmacogenomics
Microorganisms and Recombinant DNA
Technology
Drug and Vaccine Production
Biotechnology and pest management
Bacteria engineered for the foods industry
Societal Concerns
Summary and Conclusion
Study Questions
References
11. Animal Reproduction
Learning Objectives
Key Terms
Introduction
Puberty
Endocrinology
Anatomy
Female
Male
Pregnancy
Parturition
Environmental Influences on Reproduction
Technology and Reproduction
Artificial Insemination
Estrous Synchronization
Embryo Transfer
“In Vitro” Fertilization
Reproduction in Poultry and Birds
Hen
Cock
Summary and Conclusion
Study Questions
References
12. Lactation
Learning Objectives
Key Terms
Introduction
Mammary Gland Development, Anatomy, and Function
Components of Milk
Carbohydrates
Protein
Lipids
Calcium
Other Factors in Milk Production
Summary and Conclusion
Study Questions
References
13. Animal Behavior
Learning Objectives
Key Terms
Introduction
Areas of Study in Animal Behavior
Communication
Aggression and Social Structure
Biological Rhythms and Sleep
Sexual Behavior
Maternal Behavior
Development of Behavior
Learning
Ingestive Behavior: Food and Water Intake
Behavioral Disorders
Livestock Behavior
Temperament
Training and Habituating Livestock to Handling and Restraint
Effects of Novelty
Vision
Noise
Flight Zone
Herd Animals
Genetic Differences
Handler Dominance
Handling Facility Layout
Improved Handling Practices
Objective Scoring of Handling
Summary and Conclusion
Study Questions
References
14. Animal Health
Learning Objectives
Key Terms
Introduction
Disease
Causes of Disease
Describing Disease
Diagnosis of Disease
Veterinary Services Available
Mobile
Animal Clinics/Hospitals
Programmed Health Management
Resident Veterinarian
Diagnostic Services
The Body’s Defense Against Disease
Herd Health
Management
Nutrition
Genetics
Prevention
Animal Disease and Human Well-Being
Emotional Loss
Animal Disease and Human Health
Animal Disease and National Economies
Animal Disease and Farm Income
Bioterrorism
Regulatory Animal Medicine
Federal Regulation
Animal Disease Traceability Framework
State Regulation
Accredited Veterinarians
United States Animal Health Association (USAHA)
Organizations
American Veterinary Medical Association
USDA, APHIS, Animal Care
United States Animal Health Association
Summary and Conclusion
Study Questions
References
PART THREE: THE ANIMAL INDUSTRIES
15. Market Coordination in the Beef, Pork, and Poultry Industries
Learning Objectives
Key Terms
Introduction
Vertical Integration Definition
Vertical Coordination Motives
Current State of Vertical Integration
Production Characteristics: Beef, Pork, and Poultry
Biological Production Cycle
Genetic Base
Industry Stages
Geographic Concentration in Production
Operation Size and Specialization
Market Factors Enhancing Coordination
Value-Added Products at Retail
New Product Development
Brand Marketing
Vertical Coordination Limitations
Capital
Risk
Control of Quantity, Quality, and Consistency
Management Skills Needed
Summary and Conclusion
Study Questions
References
16. Beef Cattle
Learning Objectives
Key Terms
Scientific Classification of Cattle
The Place of the Beef Cattle Industry in U.S. Agriculture
Purpose of the U.S. Beef Cattle Industry
Historical Perspective
Structure of the Beef Industry
Geographic Location of Beef Cattle in the United States
Genetics and Breeding Programs
Breeds
Reproductive Management in Beef Cattle
Nutrition in Beef Cattle
Challenges to Beef Cattle Health
Calf diarrhea (scours)
Bovine respiratory disease
Blackleg
Bloat
Beef’s Nutritional Benefits to Humans
Trends and Factors Influencing the Beef Industry
Consumption
Exports/Globalization
Technology
Animal Traceability
Food Safety
Environmental Concerns
Organic and Natural Production
Biofuel Production
Industry Structure
Additional Trends and Concerns
Summary and Conclusion
Study Questions
References
17. Dairy Cattle
Learning Objectives
Key Terms
Scientific Classification of Cattle
The Place of the Dairy Cattle Industry in U.S. Agriculture
Purpose of the Dairy Cattle Industry in the United States
Historical Perspective
Structure and Geographic Location of the Dairy Industry
Dairy Herd Improvement Association (DHIA)
Genetics and Breeding Programs
Breeds
Reproductive Management in Dairy Cattle
Nutrition in Dairy Cattle
Herd Health
Mastitis
Milk fever (hypocalcemia)
Displaced abomasum
Johne’s disease
Bovine Somatotropin (BST)
Nutritional Benefits of Milk to Humans
Trends and Factors Influencing the Dairy Industry
Restructuring
Consumption
Food Safety
Trade
Industry Organizations
Summary and Conclusion
Study Questions
References
18. Poultry
Learning Objectives
Key Terms
Scientific Classification of Poultry
The Place of Poultry in U.S. Agriculture
Purpose of the Poultry Industry in the United States
Historical Perspective
Domestication
Early Use in the United States
Eggs
Genetics
Chicks
Integration
Structure and Geographic Location of the Poultry Industry
The U.S. Broiler Industry
The U.S. Egg Industry
The U.S. Turkey Industry
The U.S. Duck, Goose, and Other Poultry Industries
Genetics and Breeding Programs
Breeds, Varieties, and Strains of Poultry
Chicken Breeds in Modern Production
Turkey Breeds
Duck and Goose Breeds
Reproductive Management in Poultry
Breeder Flock Management
Mating Systems
Selection and Care of Eggs
Egg Storage
Incubators
Testing for Fertility
Nutrition in Poultry
Flock Health Management
Challenges to Poultry Health
Rickets
Fowl cholera
Mycoplasmosis
Nutritional Benefits of Poultry to Humans
Trends and Factors Influencing the Poultry Industry
Turkey Consumption and Production
Broiler Consumption and Production
Egg Consumption
All-Natural and Organic Production
Food Safety Concerns
Integration and Consolidation
Technological Innovation and Standardization
Waste Disposal
Biotechnology
Animal Welfare
Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)
Industry Organizations
Summary and Conclusion
Study Questions
References
19. Swine
Learning Objectives
Key Terms
Scientific Classification of swine
The Place of the Swine Industry in U.S. Agriculture
Purpose of the Swine Industry in the United States
Historical Perspective
Structure of the Swine Industry
Geographic Location of Swine in the United States
Genetics and Breeding Programs
Breeds
Swine Breeding Programs
Reproductive Management in Swine
Gilts
Sows
Estrus Detection
Farrowing Management
Boars
Artificial Insemination in Swine
Record Keeping
Nutrition in Swine
Feeding Practices
Herd Health Management
Biosecurity
challenges to swine health
Diarrhea (scours)
Respiratory disease
Gastric ulcers
Nutritional Benefits of Pork to Humans
Trends and Factors Influencing the Swine Industry
Pork Consumption
Nutrition and Health Consciousness
Convenient Foods
Food Safety Concerns
Last Stages of Restructuring-Consolidation
Technological Innovation and Standardization
Waste Disposal
Biotechnology
Foreign Competition/Trade
Animal Welfare/Animal Rights
Work Force
Industry Organizations
Summary and Conclusion
Study Questions
References
20. Sheep and Goats
Learning Objectives
Key Terms
Scientific Classification of Sheep and Goats
The Place of the Sheep and Goat Industries in U.S. Agriculture
Purpose of the Sheep and Goat Industries in the United States
Historical Perspective
Structure of the Sheep and Goat Industries
Geographic Location of Sheep and Goats in the United States
Selection and Breeding Programs
Breeds
Reproductive Management
Nutrition
Challenges to Sheep and Goat Health
Gastrointestinal parasitism
Contagious ecthyma
Caseous lymphadenitis
Pregnancy toxemia
Nutritional Benefits of Lamb and Goat Meat to Humans
Nutritional Benefits of Goat Milk to Humans
Trends and Factors Influencing the sheep and goat Industries
Consumption
Industry Size and Structure
Environmental Concerns
Technology
Industry Organizations
Summary and Conclusion
Study Questions
References
21. Horses
Learning Objectives
Key Terms
Scientific Classification of Horses
The Place of Horses in the United States
Purpose of the Horse Industry in the United States
Historical Perspective
Structure and Geographic Location of the Horse Industry
Horse Genetics
Basic Coat Colors
Flaxen Mane and Tail
Additional Common Markings
Genetic Diseases in Horses
Breeds of Horses
Draft Horses
Imported Light Breeds
Breeds of Horses Developed in the United States
Breed Popularity
Reproductive Management
Nutrition and Feeding of Horses
Challenges to Horse Health
Colic
Laminitis
Heaves
Trends and Factors Influencing the Horse Industry
Education and Research
Competition
New Owners
Safety Concerns
West Nile Virus
Social Issues
Technological Innovation
Industry Organizations
Summary and Conclusion
Study Questions
References
22. Aquaculture
Learning Objectives
Key Terms
The Place of Aquaculture in U.S. Agriculture
The Purpose of the Aquaculture Industry
Worldwide Importance of Aquaculture
Historical Perspective
Structure and Geographic Location of the Aquaculture Industry
Catfish
Trout
Tilapia
Crawfish
Salmon
Mollusks
Ornamental Fish
Types of Aquaculture Systems
Water Quality
Aquaculture Life Cycles
Genetics
Nutrition of Aquatic Species
Benefits of Consuming Farm-Raised Fish
Trends Affecting Aquaculture
Species
Technology
Constraints to Expansion
Disease Control
Environmental Concerns
Predator Loss
Culture of Aquatic Species
Farm-Raised Channel Catfish (Ictalurus Punctatus)*
Production Process
Feeding
Water Quality
Disease Management
Harvest and Marketing
Quality Assurance
Freshwater Prawn Pond Production and Grow-Out (Macrobrachium Rosenbergii)*
Site Selection and Pond Design
Stocking of Juveniles
Temperature
Feeding
Water Quality Management
Nitrogen Compounds
pH
Diseases
Harvesting
Polyculture and Intercropping
Processing and Marketing
Reproduction of Angelfish (Pterophyllum Scalare)*
Water Quality
Nutrition
Spawning
Sources of Information
Study Questions
References
23. Pet and Companion Animals
Learning Objectives
Key Terms
The Place of Pet and Companion Species in the United States
Purpose of the Pet and Companion Animals Industry
Pets and Companion Animals Defined
Value of Pets
Historical Perspective
Geographic Location
Genetics and Breeding Programs
Breeds of Dogs
Breeds of Cats
Breeds of Other Pet Species
Reproductive Management
Nutrition of the Pet Species
Product Name
Net Quantity Statement
Nutritional Adequacy Statement
Feeding Directions
Calorie Statement
Other Label Claims
Challenges to Companion Animal Health
Cancer
Allergic skin disease
Pyometra
Endocrine diseases
Trends in the Pet Industry
Humanizing the Pet
Pet Population
Registered Animals
Pet Foods
Nutrition
Veterinary Expenditures
Mini-Trends
Industry Organizations
Summary and Conclusion
Study Questions
References
24. Lamoids
Learning Objectives
Key Terms
Scientific Classification of Camelids
The Place of Lamoids in the United States
The Purpose of the Llama and Alpaca Industries
History of the Llama in the United States
Geographic Distribution
Physical Description
Camelidae
Lamoids
Genetics and Breeds
Health Care
Reproduction
Rearing the Cria
Nutrition and Feed Use
Lamoid Feeding
Behavior
Trends and Challenges to the Llama Industry
Research Needs
Educational Needs
Health Care
Organizations and Sources of Information
Summary and Conclusion
Study Questions
References
25. Rabbits
Learning Objectives
Key Terms
Scientific Classification of the Rabbit
The Place and Purpose of Rabbits in the United States
Historical Perspective
Geographic Location of the Rabbit Industry in the United States
The Structure of the Rabbit Industry
The Rabbit Fancy
Commercial Meat Production
Laboratory Specimen Production
Breeding Stock Production
Angora Production
Breeds and Genetics
Reproductive Management
Nutrition
Health Program
Challenges to Rabbit Health
Pasteurellosis
Mastitis
Diarrhea
Non-infectious diseases
Nutritional Value of Rabbit Meat to Humans
Trends and Factors in Rabbit Production
Advantages of Commercial Rabbit Production
Disadvantages of Commercial Rabbit Production
Management
Organizations and Sources of Information
Summary and Conclusion
Study Questions
References
PART FOUR: ANIMALS AND SOCIETY
26. Careers and Career Preparation in the Animal Sciences
Learning Objectives
Key Terms
Introduction
Animal Science Studies and Careers
Production
Science and Medicine
Foods
Agribusiness
Communication and Education
Animal Caretakers
International Opportunities
Trends Affecting Employment
A Job, a Career, a Lifetime: What are You Deciding When You Choose a Career and a Major?
Summary and Conclusion
Study Questions
References
27. Food Safety and Consumer Concerns
Learning Objectives
Key Terms
Introduction
History of Food Safety as a Public Issue
Importance of Food Safety to Consumers
Preventing Foodborne Illnesses
Some Important Microbial Pathogens Associated with Foodborne Illness
Bacteria
Parasitic Protozoa
Viruses
Governmental Agencies and Food Safety
The Role of the FDA
The Role of FSIS
Responsibilities of the Federal Agencies
Changes in FSIS
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP)
The Seven HACCP Principles
Additional Changes at FSIS and Other Food Safety Initiatives
The Bioterrorism Act of Ensuring Safety of the Milk Supply
Other Issues of Concern to Consumers
Bovine Somatotropin
Hormones
Antibiotics
Food Irradiation
Mad Cow Disease
Genetically Engineered Products
Sources of Information
Summary and Conclusion
Study Questions
References
28. Animal Welfare and Animal Rights
Learning Objectives
Key Terms
Introduction
Animal Rights Versus Animal Welfare
Philosophy, History, and Legislation
Animal Welfare/Animal Rights Groups
Animal Rights Issues Present and Future
Defining and Measuring Animal Welfare
Sources of Information
Suggested Readings
Summary and Conclusion
References
29. Animals in Sustainable Agriculture
Learning Objectives
Key Terms
Introduction
What is Sustainable Agriculture?
Practices That Are Part of Sustainable Farming
The Systems Philosophy
Animals in Sustainable Agricultural Systems
Monoculture
Sources of Information
Summary and Conclusion
Study Questions
References
Glossary
Index
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