CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide VitalSource eText : 9780134440989

CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide VitalSource eText

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About the book

Trust the best-selling Official Cert Guide series from Cisco Press to help you learn, prepare, and practice for exam success. They are built with the objective of providing assessment, review, and practice to help ensure you are fully prepared for your certification exam.

CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Official Cert Guide presents you with an organized test-preparation routine through the use of proven series elements and techniques. “Do I Know This Already?” quizzes open each chapter and enable you to decide how much time you need to spend on each section. Exam topic lists make referencing easy. Chapter-ending Exam Preparation Tasks help you drill on key concepts you must know thoroughly.

Table of contents
Introduction xxxiv

Your Study Plan 2

Part I Networking Fundamentals 13

Chapter 1 Introduction to TCP/IP Networking 14

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 14

Foundation Topics 17

Perspectives on Networking 17

TCP/IP Networking Model 18

History Leading to TCP/IP 19

Overview of the TCP/IP Networking Model 20

TCP/IP Application Layer 22

TCP/IP Transport Layer 23

TCP/IP Network Layer 25

TCP/IP Link Layer (Data Link Plus Physical) 28

TCP/IP Model and Terminology 30

OSI Networking Model 32

Comparing OSI and TCP/IP 32

Describing Protocols by Referencing the OSI Layers 33

OSI Layers and Their Functions 33

OSI Layering Concepts and Benefits 35

OSI Encapsulation Terminology 35

Chapter 2 Fundamentals of Ethernet LANs 38

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 38

Foundation Topics 40

An Overview of LANs 40

Typical SOHO LANs 41

Typical Enterprise LANs 42

The Variety of Ethernet Physical Layer Standards 43

Consistent Behavior over All Links Using the Ethernet Data Link Layer 44

Building Physical Ethernet Networks with UTP 45

Transmitting Data Using Twisted Pairs 45

Breaking Down a UTP Ethernet Link 46

UTP Cabling Pinouts for 10BASE-T and 100BASE-T 48

UTP Cabling Pinouts for 1000BASE-T 51

Sending Data in Ethernet Networks 51

Ethernet Data-Link Protocols 51

Sending Ethernet Frames with Switches and Hubs 55

Chapter 3 Fundamentals of WANs 60

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 60

Foundation Topics 62

Leased-Line WANs 62

Positioning Leased Lines with LANs and Routers 62

Physical Details of Leased Lines 63

Data-Link Details of Leased Lines 66

Ethernet as a WAN Technology 69

Ethernet WANs that Create a Layer 2 Service 70

How Routers Route IP Packets Using Ethernet Emulation 71

Accessing the Internet 72

The Internet as a Large WAN 72

Internet Access (WAN) Links 73

Digital Subscriber Line 74

Cable Internet 76

Chapter 4 Fundamentals of IPv4 Addressing and Routing 78

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 78

Foundation Topics 81

Overview of Network Layer Functions 81

Network Layer Routing (Forwarding) Logic 81

How Network Layer Routing Uses LANs and WANs 83

IP Addressing and How Addressing Helps IP Routing 84

Routing Protocols 85

IPv4 Addressing 86

Rules for IP Addresses 86

Rules for Grouping IP Addresses 87

IP Subnetting 91

IPv4 Routing 93

IPv4 Host Routing 93

Router Forwarding Decisions and the IP Routing Table 94

IPv4 Routing Protocols 96

Other Network Layer Features 98

Using Names and the Domain Name System 98

The Address Resolution Protocol 99

ICMP Echo and the ping Command 100

Chapter 5 Fundamentals of TCP/IP Transport and Applications 102

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 102

Foundation Topics 104

TCP/IP Layer 4 Protocols: TCP and UDP 104

Transmission Control Protocol 105

User Datagram Protocol 113

TCP/IP Applications 114

Uniform Resource Identifiers 114

Finding the Web Server Using DNS 115

Transferring Files with HTTP 117

How the Receiving Host Identifies the Correct Receiving Application 118

Part I Review 120

Part II Implementing Basic Ethernet LANs 125

Chapter 6 Using the Command-Line Interface 126

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 126

Foundation Topics 128

Accessing the Cisco Catalyst Switch CLI 128

Cisco Catalyst Switches 128

Accessing the Cisco IOS CLI 129

CLI Help Features 136

The debug and show Commands 137

Configuring Cisco IOS Software 138

Configuration Submodes and Contexts 139

Storing Switch Configuration Files 141

Copying and Erasing Configuration Files 143

Chapter 7 Analyzing Ethernet LAN Switching 146

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 146

Foundation Topics 148

LAN Switching Concepts 148

Overview of Switching Logic 149

Forwarding Known Unicast Frames 150

Learning MAC Addresses 153

Flooding Unknown Unicast and Broadcast Frames 154

Avoiding Loops Using Spanning Tree Protocol 154

LAN Switching Summary 155

Verifying and Analyzing Ethernet Switching 156

Demonstrating MAC Learning 156

Switch Interfaces 158

Finding Entries in the MAC Address Table 159

Managing the MAC Address Table (Aging, Clearing) 161

MAC Address Tables with Multiple Switches 162

Chapter 8 Configuring Basic Switch Management 166

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 166

Foundation Topics 168

Securing the Switch CLI 168

Securing User Mode and Privileged Mode with Simple Passwords 169

Securing User Mode Access with Local Usernames and Passwords 173

Securing User Mode Access with External Authentication Servers 175

Securing Remote Access with Secure Shell 176

Enabling IPv4 for Remote Access 179

Host and Switch IP Settings 179

Configuring IPv4 on a Switch 181

Configuring a Switch to Learn Its IP Address with DHCP 182

Verifying IPv4 on a Switch 183

Miscellaneous Settings Useful in Lab 184

History Buffer Commands 184

The logging synchronous, exec-timeout, and no ip domain-lookup Commands 184

Chapter 9 Configuring Switch Interfaces 190

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 190

Foundation Topics 192

Configuring Switch Interfaces 192

Configuring Speed, Duplex, and Description 193

Configuring Multiple Interfaces with the interface range Command 195

Administratively Controlling Interface State with shutdown 195

Removing Configuration with the no Command 197

Autonegotiation 198

Port Security 202

Configuring Port Security 203

Verifying Port Security 205

Port Security Violation Actions 207

Port Security MAC Addresses as Static and Secure but Not Dynamic 207

Part II Review 212

Part III Ethernet LANs: Design, VLANs, and Troubleshooting 217

Chapter 10 Analyzing Ethernet LAN Designs 218

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 218

Foundation Topics 220

Analyzing Collision Domains and Broadcast Domains 220

Ethernet Collision Domains 220

Ethernet Broadcast Domains 224

Analyzing Campus LAN Topologies 227

Two-Tier Campus Design (Collapsed Core) 227

Three-Tier Campus Design (Core) 230

Topology Design Terminology 232

Analyzing LAN Physical Standard Choices 233

Ethernet Standards 234

Choosing the Right Ethernet Standard for Each Link 235

Wireless LANs Combined with Wired Ethernet 236

Chapter 11 Implementing Ethernet Virtual LANs 242

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 242

Foundation Topics 244

Virtual LAN Concepts 244

Creating Multiswitch VLANs Using Trunking 246

Forwarding Data Between VLANs 249

VLAN and VLAN Trunking Configuration and Verification 252

Creating VLANs and Assigning Access VLANs to an Interface 252

VLAN Trunking Protocol 257

VLAN Trunking Configuration 258

Implementing Interfaces Connected to Phones 262

Chapter 12 Troubleshooting Ethernet LANs 270

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 271

Foundation Topics 274

Perspectives on Applying Troubleshooting Methodologies 274

Troubleshooting on the Exams 275

A Deeper Look at Problem Isolation 275

Troubleshooting as Covered in This Book 277

Analyzing Switch Interface Status and Statistics 278

Interface Status Codes and Reasons for Nonworking States 278

Interface Speed and Duplex Issues 279

Common Layer 1 Problems on Working Interfaces 282

Predicting Where Switches Will Forward Frames 284

Predicting the Contents of the MAC Address Table 284

Analyzing the Forwarding Path 286

Analyzing Port Security Operations on an Interface 287

Troubleshooting Shutdown Mode and Err-disabled Recovery 288

Troubleshooting Restrict and Protect Modes 289

Analyzing VLANs and VLAN Trunks 292

Ensuring That the Right Access Interfaces Are in the Right VLANs 292

Access VLANs Not Being Defined 293

Access VLANs Being Disabled 294

Mismatched Trunking Operational States 294

Part III Review 298

Part IV IP Version 4 Addressing and Subnetting 301

Chapter 13 Perspectives on IPv4 Subnetting 302

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 302

Foundation Topics 304

Introduction to Subnetting 304

Subnetting Defined Through a Simple Example 305

Operational View Versus Design View of Subnetting 306

Analyze Subnetting and Addressing Needs 306

Rules About Which Hosts Are in Which Subnet 306

Determining the Number of Subnets 308

Determining the Number of Hosts per Subnet 309

One Size Subnet Fits All–Or Not 310

Make Design Choices 313

Choose a Classful Network 313

Choose the Mask 316

Build a List of All Subnets 320

Plan the Implementation 321

Assigning Subnets to Different Locations 322

Choose Static and Dynamic Ranges per Subnet 323

Chapter 14 Analyzing Classful IPv4 Networks 326

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 326

Foundation Topics 328

Classful Network Concepts 328

IPv4 Network Classes and Related Facts 328

Number of Hosts per Network 331

Deriving the Network ID and Related Numbers 332

Unusual Network IDs and Network Broadcast Addresses 334

Practice with Classful Networks 334

Practice Deriving Key Facts Based on an IP Address 335

Practice Remembering the Details of Address Classes 335

Additional Practice for This Chapter’s Processes 337

Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 337

Chapter 15 Analyzing Subnet Masks 340

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 340

Foundation Topics 342

Subnet Mask Conversion 342

Three Mask Formats 342

Converting Between Binary and Prefix Masks 343

Converting Between Binary and DDN Masks 344

Converting Between Prefix and DDN Masks 346

Practice Converting Subnet Masks 346

Identifying Subnet Design Choices Using Masks 347

Masks Divide the Subnet’s Addresses into Two Parts 348

Masks and Class Divide Addresses into Three Parts 349

Classless and Classful Addressing 350

Calculations Based on the IPv4 Address Format 350

Practice Analyzing Subnet Masks 352

Additional Practice for This Chapter’s Processes 354

Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 354

Chapter 16 Analyzing Existing Subnets 356

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 356

Foundation Topics 358

Defining a Subnet 358

An Example with Network and Four Subnets 358

Subnet ID Concepts 360

Subnet Broadcast Address 361

Range of Usable Addresses 361

Analyzing Existing Subnets: Binary 362

Finding the Subnet ID: Binary 362

Finding the Subnet Broadcast Address: Binary 364

Binary Practice Problems 364

Shortcut for the Binary Process 366

Brief Note About Boolean Math 367

Finding the Range of Addresses 367

Analyzing Existing Subnets: Decimal 368

Analysis with Easy Masks 368

Predictability in the Interesting Octet 369

Finding the Subnet ID: Difficult Masks 370

Finding the Subnet Broadcast Address: Difficult Masks 372

Practice Analyzing Existing Subnets 374

A Choice: Memorize or Calculate 374

Additional Practice for This Chapter’s Processes 375

Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 376

Part IV Review 378

Part V Implementing IPv4 383

Chapter 17 Operating Cisco Routers 384

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 384

Foundation Topics 386

Installing Cisco Routers 386

Installing Enterprise Routers 386

Installing Internet Access Routers 389

Enabling IPv4 Support on Cisco Router Interfaces 390

Accessing the Router CLI 390

Router Interfaces 391

Interface Status Codes 393

Router Interface IP Addresses 394

Bandwidth and Clock Rate on Serial Interfaces 396

Router Auxiliary Port 398

Chapter 18 Configuring IPv4 Addresses and Static Routes 402

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 403

Foundation Topics 405

IP Routing 405

IPv4 Routing Process Reference 405

An Example of IP Routing 408

Configuring IP Addresses and Connected Routes 412

Connected Routes and the ip address Command 413

The ARP Table on a Cisco Router 415

Routing Between Subnets on VLANs 415

Configuring Static Routes 422

Static Route Configuration 422

Static Host Routes 424

Static Routes with No Competing Routes 425

Static Routes with Competing Routes 425

Static Default Routes 427

Troubleshooting Static Routes 428

Chapter 19 Learning IPv4 Routes with RIPv2 434

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 435

Foundation Topics 437

RIP and Routing Protocol Concepts 437

History of Interior Gateway Protocols 437

Comparing IGPs 438

Distance Vector Basics 439

Summarizing RIPv2 Features 442

Core RIPv2 Configuration and Verification 443

Configuring Core RIPv2 Features 443

RIPv2 Verification 447

Optional RIPv2 Configuration and Verification 452

Controlling RIP Updates with the passive-interface Command 452

Supporting Multiple Equal-Cost Routes with Maximum Paths 453

Understanding Autosummarization and Discontiguous Classful Networks 454

Verifying Optional RIP Features 456

RIPv2 Default Routes 458

Troubleshooting RIPv2 461

Symptoms with Missing and Incorrect network Commands 463

Issues Related to Passive Interfaces 464

Issues Related to auto-summary 465

RIP Issues Caused by Other Router Features 466

Summary of RIP Troubleshooting Issues 466

Chapter 20 DHCP and IP Networking on Hosts 470

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 471

Foundation Topics 473

Implementing and Troubleshooting DHCP 473

DHCP Concepts 473

DHCP Server Configuration on Routers 478

IOS DHCP Server Verification 480

Troubleshooting DHCP Services 481

Verifying Host IPv4 Settings 486

IP Address and Mask Configuration 487

Name Resolution with DNS 488

Default Routers 489

IPv4 Address Types 490

Review of Unicast (Class A, B, and C) IP Addresses 491

IP Broadcast Addresses 491

IPv4 Multicast Addresses (Class D Addresses) 492

Comparing and Contrasting IP Address Types 494

Part V Review 498

Part VI IPv4 Design and Troubleshooting 503

Chapter 21 Subnet Design 504

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 504

Foundation Topics 506

Choosing the Mask(s) to Meet Requirements 506

Review: Choosing the Minimum Number of Subnet and Host Bits 507

No Masks Meet Requirements 508

One Mask Meets Requirements 509

Multiple Masks Meet Requirements 510

The Formal Process 512

Practice Choosing Subnet Masks 513

Finding All Subnet IDs 513

First Subnet ID: The Zero Subnet 514

Finding the Pattern Using the Magic Number 515

A Formal Process with Less Than 8 Subnet Bits 515

Finding All Subnets with Exactly 8 Subnet Bits 519

Finding All Subnets with More Than 8 Subnet Bits 520

Practice Finding All Subnet IDs 523

Additional Practice for This Chapter’s Processes 524

Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 524

Chapter 22 Variable-Length Subnet Masks 528

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 528

Foundation Topics 530

VLSM Concepts and Configuration 530

Classless and Classful Routing Protocols 530

VLSM Configuration and Verification 531

Finding VLSM Overlaps 532

Designing Subnetting Plans with VLSM 533

An Example of Finding a VLSM Overlap 534

Practice Finding VLSM Overlaps 536

Adding a New Subnet to an Existing VLSM Design 536

An Example of Adding a New VLSM Subnet 537

Additional Practice for This Chapter’s Processes 539

Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 539

Chapter 23 IPv4 Troubleshooting Tools 542

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 543

Foundation Topics 543

Problem Isolation Using the ping Command 543

Ping Command Basics 543

Strategies and Results When Testing with the ping Command 544

Using Ping with Names and with IP Addresses 552

Problem Isolation Using the traceroute Command 553

traceroute Basics 553

Using traceroute to Isolate the Problem to Two Routers 557

Telnet and SSH 559

Common Reasons to Use the IOS Telnet and SSH Client 559

IOS Telnet and SSH Examples 560

Chapter 24 Troubleshooting IPv4 Routing 564

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 565

Foundation Topics 565

Problems Between the Host and the Default Router 565

Root Causes Based on a Host’s IPv4 Settings 566

Root Causes Based on the Default Router’s Configuration 570

Problems with Routing Packets Between Routers 574

IP Forwarding by Matching the Most Specific Route 575

Routing Problems Caused by Incorrect Addressing Plans 579

Pointers to Related Troubleshooting Topics 583

Part VI Review 586

Part VII IPv4 Services: ACLs and NAT 591

Chapter 25 Basic IPv4 Access Control Lists 592

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 592

Foundation Topics 594

IPv4 Access Control List Basics 594

ACL Location and Direction 594

Matching Packets 595

Taking Action When a Match Occurs 596

Types of IP ACLs 596

Standard Numbered IPv4 ACLs 597

List Logic with IP ACLs 598

Matching Logic and Command Syntax 599

Implementing Standard IP ACLs 602

Troubleshooting and Verification Tips 606

Practice Applying Standard IP ACLs 607

Practice Building access-list Commands 608

Reverse Engineering from ACL to Address Range 608

Additional Practice for This Chapter’s Processes 611

Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 612

Chapter 26 Advanced IPv4 Access Control Lists 614

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 615

Foundation Topics 616

Extended Numbered IP Access Control Lists 616

Matching the Protocol, Source IP, and Destination IP 617

Matching TCP and UDP Port Numbers 618

Extended IP ACL Configuration 621

Practice Building access-list Commands 624

Named ACLs and ACL Editing 625

Named IP Access Lists 625

Editing ACLs Using Sequence Numbers 627

Numbered ACL Configuration Versus Named ACL Configuration 629

ACL Implementation Considerations 630

Troubleshooting with IPv4 ACLs 631

Analyzing ACL Behavior in a Network 631

ACL Interactions with Router-Generated Packets 637

Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 641

Chapter 27 Network Address Translation 642

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 642

Foundation Topics 645

Perspectives on IPv4 Address Scalability 645

CIDR 645

Private Addressing 646

Network Address Translation Concepts 647

Static NAT 648

Dynamic NAT 650

Overloading NAT with Port Address Translation 652

NAT Configuration and Troubleshooting 653

Static NAT Configuration 653

Dynamic NAT Configuration 655

Dynamic NAT Verification 657

NAT Overload (PAT) Configuration 660

NAT Troubleshooting 662

Part VII Review 666

Part VIII IP Version 6 671

Chapter 28 Fundamentals of IP Version 6 672

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 672

Foundation Topics 674

Introduction to IPv6 674

IPv6 Addressing Formats and Conventions 680

Additional Practice for This Chapter’s Processes 686

Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 687

Chapter 29 IPv6 Addressing and Subnetting 688

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 688

Foundation Topics 690

Global Unicast Addressing Concepts 690

A Brief Review of Public and Private IPv4 Addresses 690

The IPv6 Global Routing Prefix 693

Address Ranges for Global Unicast Addresses 695

IPv6 Subnetting Using Global Unicast Addresses 696

Assigning Addresses to Hosts in a Subnet 700

Unique Local Unicast Addresses 701

Subnetting with Unique Local IPv6 Addresses 701

The Need for Globally Unique Local Addresses 702

Chapter 30 Implementing IPv6 Addressing on Routers 704

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 705

Foundation Topics 706

Implementing Unicast IPv6 Addresses on Routers 706

Static Unicast Address Configuration 707

Dynamic Unicast Address Configuration 715

Special Addresses Used by Routers 715

Link-Local Addresses 716

IPv6 Multicast Addresses 719

Miscellaneous IPv6 Addresses 723

IPv6 Addressing Configuration Summary 723

Additional Practice for This Chapter’s Processes 725

Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 726

Chapter 31 Implementing IPv6 Addressing on Hosts 728

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 728

Foundation Topics 730

The Neighbor Discovery Protocol 730

Discovering Routers with NDP RS and RA 731

Discovering Addressing Info for SLAAC with NDP RS and RA 732

Discovering Neighbor Link Addresses with NDP NS and NA 733

Discovering Duplicate Addresses Using NDP NS and NA 734

NDP Summary 735

Dynamic Configuration of Host IPv6 Settings 735

Dynamic Configuration Using Stateful DHCP and NDP 736

Using Stateless Address Auto Configuration 739

Troubleshooting IPv6 Addressing 741

Verifying Host IPv6 Connectivity from Hosts 741

Verifying Host Connectivity from Nearby Routers 744

Chapter 32 Implementing IPv6 Routing 750

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 750

Foundation Topics 752

Connected and Local IPv6 Routes 752

Rules for Connected and Local Routes 753

Example of Connected IPv6 Routes 753

Examples of Local IPv6 Routes 755

Static IPv6 Routes 756

Static Routes Using the Outgoing Interface 756

Static Routes Using Next-Hop IPv6 Address 758

Static Default Routes 760

Static IPv6 Host Routes 761

Floating Static IPv6 Routes 762

Default Routes with SLAAC on Router Interfaces 763

Troubleshooting Static IPv6 Routes 765

Part VIII Review 772

Part IX Network Device Management 777

Chapter 33 Device Management Protocols 778

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 779

Foundation Topics 780

System Message Logging (Syslog) 780

Sending Messages in Real Time to Current Users 780

Storing Log Messages for Later Review 781

Log Message Format 782

Log Message Severity Levels 783

Configuring and Verifying System Logging 784

The debug Command and Log Messages 786

Network Time Protocol (NTP) 787

Setting the Time and Timezone 788

Implementing NTP Clients, Servers, and Client/Server Mode 789

NTP Using a Loopback Interface for Better Availability 791

Analyzing Topology Using CDP and LLDP 793

Examining Information Learned by CDP 793

Configuring and Verifying CDP Itself 796

Implementing Link Layer Discovery Protocol 797

Chapter 34 Device Security Features 802

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 802

Foundation Topics 804

Securing IOS Passwords 804

Encrypting Older IOS Passwords with service password-encryption 805

Encoding the Enable Passwords with Hashes 806

Hiding the Passwords for Local Usernames 810

Cisco Device Hardening 810

Configuring Login Banners 810

Securing Unused Switch Interfaces 812

Controlling Telnet and SSH Access with ACLs 813

Firewalls 814

Chapter 35 Managing IOS Files 820

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 820

Foundation Topics 822

Managing Cisco IOS Images and Upgrades 822

The IOS File System 822

Upgrading IOS Images 824

The Cisco IOS Software Boot Sequence 830

Password Recovery 835

The General Ideas Behind Cisco Password Recovery/Reset 836

A Specific Password Reset Example 837

Managing Configuration Files 839

Copying and Erasing Configuration Files 839

Initial Configuration (Setup Mode) 843

Chapter 36 IOS License Management 848

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 848

Foundation Topics 850

IOS Packaging 850

IOS Images per Model, Series, and per Software Version/Release 850

Original Packaging: One IOS Image per Feature Set Combination 851

New IOS Packaging: One Universal Image with All Feature Sets 851

IOS Software Activation with Universal Images 852

The Future: Cisco ONE Licensing 854

Managing Software Activation with Cisco License Manager 854

Manually Activating Software Using Licenses 855

Example of Manually Activating a License 857

Right-to-Use Licenses 861

Part IX Review 864

Part X Final Review 867

Chapter 37 Final Review 868

Advice About the Exam Event 868

Learn the Question Types Using the Cisco Certification Exam Tutorial 868

Think About Your Time Budget Versus Number of Questions 869

A Suggested Time-Check Method 870

Miscellaneous Pre-Exam Suggestions 870

Exam-Day Advice 871

Reserve the Hour After the Exam in Case You Fail 871

Exam Review 872

Practice Subnetting and Other Math-Related Skills 873

Take Practice Exams 874

Find Knowledge Gaps Through Question Review 877

Practice Hands-On CLI Skills 879

Assess Whether You Are Ready to Pass (and the Fallacy of Exam Scores) 881

Study Suggestions After Failing to Pass 882

Other Study Tasks 883

Final Thoughts 884

Part XI Appendixes 887

Appendix A Numeric Reference Tables 889

Appendix B CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-105 Exam Updates 895

Glossary 897
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