CCNA Routing and Switching Portable Command Guide (ICND1 100-105, ICND2 200-105, and CCNA 200-125) VitalSource eText : 9780134466156

CCNA Routing and Switching Portable Command Guide (ICND1 100-105, ICND2 200-105, and CCNA 200-125) VitalSource eText

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About the book

This book has been completely updated to cover all topics in the new ICND1 100-105, ICND2 200-105, and CCNA 200-125 exams. Use this quick reference resource to help you memorize commands and concepts as you work to pass the CCNA Routing and Switching certification exam.

Table of contents
Introduction xxii
Part I Network Fundamentals
Chapter 1 How to Subnet 1
Class A—E Addresses 1
Converting Between Decimal Numbers and Binary 2
Subnetting a Class C Network Using Binary 2
Subnetting a Class B Network Using Binary 5
Binary ANDing 9
So Why AND? 10
Shortcuts in Binary ANDing 11
The Enhanced Bob Maneuver for Subnetting (or How to Subnet
Anything in Under a Minute) 12
Chapter 2 VLSM 15
IP Subnet Zero 15
VLSM Example 16
Step 1: Determine How Many H Bits Will Be Needed to Satisfy the Largest Network 16
Step 2: Pick a Subnet for the Largest Network to Use 17
Step 3: Pick the Next Largest Network to Work With 18
Step 4: Pick the Third Largest Network to Work With 20
Step 5: Determine Network Numbers for Serial Links 21
Chapter 3 Route Summarization 25
Example for Understanding Route Summarization 25
Step 1: Summarize Winnipeg’s Routes 26
Step 2: Summarize Calgary’s Routes 27
Step 3: Summarize Edmonton’s Routes 27
Step 4: Summarize Vancouver’s Routes 28
Route Summarization and Route Flapping 30
Requirements for Route Summarization 30
Chapter 4 Cables and Connections 31
Connecting a Rollover Cable to Your Router or Switch 31
Using a USB Cable to Connect to Your Router or Switch 31
Terminal Settings 32
LAN Connections 33
Serial Cable Types 33
Which Cable to Use? 35
568A Versus 568B Cables 35
Chapter 5 The Command-Line Interface 37
Shortcuts for Entering Commands 37
Using the Tab Key to Complete Commands 37
Console Error Messages 38
Using the Question Mark for Help 38
enable Command 39
exit Command 39
disable Command 39
logout Command 39
Setup Mode 39
Keyboard Help 40
History Commands 41
terminal Commands 41
show Commands 41
Using the Pipe Parameter (|) with the show Command 42
Part II LAN Switching Technologies
Chapter 6 Confi guring a Switch 43
Help Commands 43
Command Modes 44
Verifying Commands 44
Resetting Switch Configuration 44
Setting Host Names 45
Setting Passwords 45
Setting IP Addresses and Default Gateways 45
Setting Interface Descriptions 46
The mdix auto Command 46
Setting Duplex Operation 47
Setting Operation Speed 47
Managing the MAC Address Table 47
Configuration Example 48
Chapter 7 VLANs 51
Creating Static VLANs 51
Using VLAN Configuration Mode 52
Using VLAN Database Mode 52
Assigning Ports to VLANs 53
Using the range Command 53
Configuring a Voice VLAN 53
Configuring Voice and Data with Trust 54
Configuring Voice and Data Without Trust 54
Verifying VLAN Information 55
Saving VLAN Configurations 56
Erasing VLAN Configurations 56
Configuration Example: VLANs 57
2960 Switch 58
Chapter 8 VLAN Trunking Protocol and
Inter-VLAN Communication 61
Dynamic Trunking Protocol (DTP) 61
Setting the VLAN Encapsulation Type 62
VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) 63
Verifying VTP 64
Inter-VLAN Communication Using an External Router: Router-on-a-Stick 64
Inter-VLAN Communication on a Multilayer Switch Through a Switch Virtual Interface 65
Remove L2 Switchport Capability of an Interface on an L3 Switch 65
Configuring Inter-VLAN Communication on an L3 Switch 65
Inter-VLAN Communication Tips 66
Configuration Example: Inter-VLAN Communication 66
ISP Router 67
CORP Router 68
L2Switch2 (Catalyst 2960) 70
L3Switch1 (Catalyst 3560) 72
L2Switch1 (Catalyst 2960) 73
Chapter 9 Spanning Tree Protocol 75
Spanning Tree Protocol Definition 75
Enabling Spanning Tree Protocol 76
Configuring the Root Switch 76
Configuring a Secondary Root Switch 77
Configuring Port Priority 77
Configuring the Path Cost 78
Configuring the Switch Priority of a VLAN 78
Configuring STP Timers 78
Verifying STP 79
Cisco STP Toolkit 79
PortFast 79
BPDU Guard 80
Changing the Spanning-Tree Mode 80
Extended System ID 81
Enabling Rapid Spanning Tree 81
Troubleshooting Spanning Tree 82
Configuration Example: PVST+ 82
Core Switch (3560) 83
Distribution 1 Switch (3560) 83
Distribution 2 Switch (3560) 84
Access 1 Switch (2960) 84
Access 2 Switch (2960) 85
Spanning-Tree Migration Example: PVST+ to Rapid-PVST+ 86
Access 1 Switch (2960) 86
Access 2 Switch (2960) 86
Distribution 1 Switch (3560) 87
Distribution 2 Switch (3560) 87
Core Switch (3560) 87
Chapter 10 EtherChannel 89
EtherChannel 89
Interface Modes in EtherChannel 89
Guidelines for Configuring EtherChannel 90
Configuring Layer 2 EtherChannel 90
Configuring L3 EtherChannel 91
Verifying EtherChannel 92
Configuration Example: EtherChannel 92
DLSwitch (3560) 93
ALSwitch1 (2960) 94
ALSwitch2 (2960) 95
Part III Routing Technologies: IPv4 and IPv6
Chapter 11 Configuring a Cisco Router 97
Router Modes 98
Entering Global Configuration Mode 98
Configuring a Router Name 98
Configuring Passwords 98
Password Encryption 99
Interface Names 99
Moving Between Interfaces 102
Configuring a Serial Interface 103
Configuring a Fast Ethernet Interface 103
Configuring a Gigabit Ethernet Interface 103
Assigning IPv6 Addresses to Interfaces 104
Creating a Message-of-the-Day Banner 104
Creating a Login Banner 105
Setting the Clock Time Zone 105
Mapping a Local Hostname to a Remote IP Address 105
The no ip domain-lookup Command 105
The logging synchronous Command 106
The exec-timeout Command 106
Saving Configurations 106
Erasing Configurations 107
show Commands 107
EXEC Commands in Configuration Mode: The do Command 108
Configuration Example: Basic Router Configuration 108
Boston Router 108
Chapter 12 Static Routing 111
Configuring an IPv4 Static Route on a Router 111
Static Routes and Recursive Lookups 112
The permanent Keyword (Optional) 112
Floating Static Routes and Administrative Distance (Optional) 113
Configuring an IPv4 Default Route on a Router 114
Verifying IPv4 Static Routes 114
Configuration Example: IPv4 Static Routes 114
Boston Router 115
Buffalo Router 116
Bangor Router 116
Static Routes in IPv6 116
Floating Static Routes in IPv6 117
Default Routes in IPv6 118
Verifying and Troubleshooting IPv6 118
Chapter 13 RIP Next Generation (RIPng) 119
Implementing RIP Next Generation 119
Verifying and Troubleshooting RIPng 120
Configuration Example: RIPng 121
Austin Router 122
Houston Router 123
Chapter 14 EIGRP and EIGRPv6 125
Configuring Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) for IPv4 125
Adjusting the EIGRP for IPv4 Metric Weights 126
Adjusting the EIGRPv6 Metric Weights 127
Configuring EIGRPv6 on an Interface 127
EIGRP Router ID 128
EIGRP Timers 128
EIGRP Auto-Summarization for IPv4 129
EIGRP Manual Summarization for IPv4 129
EIGRPv6 Summary Addresses 130
Passive EIGRP Interfaces 130
Equal-Cost Load Balancing: Maximum Paths 130
Unequal-Cost Load Balancing: Variance 131
Bandwidth Use 131
Verifying EIGRP and EIGRPv6 132
Troubleshooting EIGRP and EIGRPv6 134
Configuration Example: EIGRP 134
Austin Router 135
Houston Router 135
Configuration Example: EIGRPv6 136
R3 Router 136
R2 Router 137
R1 Router 138
Chapter 15 OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 139
OSPFv2 Versus OSPFv3 140
Configuring OSPF 140
Using Wildcard Masks with OSPF Areas 140
Configuring Multiarea OSPF 141
Multiarea OSPF Router Types 142
Loopback Interfaces 143
Router ID 143
DR/BDR Elections 144
Passive Interfaces 144
Modifying Cost Metrics 144
OSPF auto-cost reference-bandwidth 145
Timers 145
Propagating a Default Route 145
Route Summarization 146
Interarea Route Summarization 146
External Route Summarization 146
IPv6 and OSPFv3 147
Enabling OSPF for IPv6 on an Interface 147
Interarea OSPFv3 Route Summarization 147
Enabling an IPv4 Router ID for OSPFv3 148
Verifying OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 Configurations 148
Troubleshooting OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 149
Configuration Example: Single-Area OSPF 150
Austin Router 151
Houston Router 151
Galveston Router 152
Configuration Example: Multiarea OSPF 153
ASBR Router 153
ABR-1 Router 155
ABR-2 Router 156
Internal Router 157
Configuration Example: IPv6 and OSPFv3 157
R3 Router 158
R2 Router 159
R1 Router 160
R4 Router 161
Part IV WAN Technologies
Chapter 16 Understanding Point-to-Point Protocols 163
Configuring High-Level Data Link Control Encapsulation on a Serial Line 163
Configuring Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) on a Serial Line (Mandatory Commands) 164
Configuring PPP on a Serial Line (Optional Commands): Compression 164
Configuring PPP on a Serial Line (Optional Commands): Link Quality Monitoring 164
Configuring PPP on a Serial Line (Optional Commands): Authentication 165
Verifying and Troubleshooting a Serial Link/PPP Encapsulation 166
Configuration Example: PPP with CHAP Authentication 166
Boston Router 167
Buffalo Router 167
Configuring Multilink Point-to-Point Protocol 168
Branch Router 168
HQ Router 169
Verifying and Troubleshooting MLPPP 170
Configuring a DSL Connection Using Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet 170
Step 1: Configure PPPoE (External Modem) 172
Step 2: Configure the Dialer Interface 172
Step 3: Define Interesting Traffic and Specify Default Routing 173
Step 4: Configure NAT (Choose 1 Method Only) 173
Step 4a: Configure NAT Using an ACL 173
Step 4b: Configure NAT Using a Route Map 173
Step 5: Configure DHCP Service 174
Step 6: Apply NAT Programming 175
Step 7: Verify a PPPoE Connection 175
Chapter 17 External Border Gateway Protocol (eBGP) 177
Configuring Border Gateway Protocol 177
BGP and Loopback Addresses 178
Configuration Example: eBGP 178
eBGP Multihop 179
Verifying BGP Connections 180
Troubleshooting BGP Connections 181
Chapter 18 Configuring Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) Tunnels 183
Configuring a GRE Tunnel 183
Branch Router 184
HQ Router 184
Verifying a GRE Tunnel 184
Chapter 19 Quality of Service (QoS) 185
High Availability for Voice and Video 185
Configuring Basic QoS 185
Verifying Basic QoS 187
Auto-QoS 187
Restrictions for Auto-QoS 187
Configuring Auto-QoS: 2960-X/3650/3750 188
Verifying Auto QoS: 2960-X/3650/3750 189
Configuring Auto-QoS: 6500 190
Verifying Auto-QoS Information: 6500 191
Part V Infrastructure Services
Chapter 20 DHCP 193
Configuring a DHCP Server on an IOS Router 193
Using Cisco IP Phones with a DHCP Server 194
Verifying and Troubleshooting DHCP Configuration 194
Configuring a DHCP Helper Address 195
DHCP Client on a Cisco IOS Software Ethernet Interface 195
Configuration Example: DHCP 195
Edmonton Router 196
Gibbons Router 198
Chapter 21 First Hop Redundancy Protocols (FHRP): Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP) 199
First Hop Redundancy 199
HSRP 199
Configuring HSRP on a Router 200
Default HSRP Configuration Settings 200
Verifying HSRP 201
HSRP Optimization Options 201
Preempt 201
HSRP Message Timers 201
Interface Tracking 202
Debugging HSRP 202
Configuration Example: HSRP 202
Router 1 203
Router 2 204
Chapter 22 Network Address Translation (NAT) 205
Private IP Addresses: RFC 1918 205
Configuring Dynamic Network Address Translation: One Private to One Public Address Translation 205
Configuring PAT: Many Private to One Public Address Translation 207
Configuring Static NAT: One Private to One Permanent Public Address Translation 208
Verifying NAT and PAT Configurations 209
Troubleshooting NAT and PAT Configurations 210
Configuration Example: PAT 210
ISP Router 210
Company Router 211
Part VI Infrastructure Security
Chapter 23 Switch Port Security 213
Setting Passwords on a Switch 213
Configuring Static MAC Addresses 214
Switch Port Security 214
Verifying Switch Port Security 215
Sticky MAC Addresses 215
Recovering Automatically from Error-Disabled Ports 216
Verifying Autorecovery of Error-Disabled Ports 216
Configuration Example 216
Chapter 24 Managing Traffi c Using Access Control Lists (ACL) 219
Access List Numbers 219
Using Wildcard Masks 220
ACL Keywords 220
Creating Standard ACLs 221
Applying Standard ACLs to an Interface 222
Verifying ACLs 222
Removing ACLs 222
Creating Extended ACLs 222
Applying Extended ACLs to an Interface 223
The established Keyword 224
The log Keyword 224
Creating Named ACLs 225
Using Sequence Numbers in Named ACLs 226
Removing Specific Lines in Named ACLs Using Sequence Numbers 227
Sequence Number Tips 227
Including Comments About Entries in ACLs 228
Restricting Virtual Terminal Access 228
Tips for Configuring ACLs 229
IPv6 ACLs 230
Verifying IPv6 ACLs 230
Configuration Examples: IPv4 ACLs 230
Configuration Examples: IPv6 ACLs 233
Chapter 25 Device Hardening 235
Securing Cisco Device According to Recommended Practices 235
Securing Cisco IOS Routers Checklist 235
Components of a Router Security Policy 236
Configuring Passwords 236
Password Encryption 237
Configuring SSH 238
Verifying SSH 239
Restricting Virtual Terminal Access 239
Disabling Unneeded Services 240
Part VII Infrastructure Management
Chapter 26 Backing Up and Restoring Cisco IOS Software and Configurations 241
Boot System Commands 241
The Cisco IOS File System 242
Viewing the Cisco IOS File System 242
Commonly Used URL Prefixes for Cisco Network Devices 242
Deciphering IOS Image Filenames 243
Backing Up Configurations to a TFTP Server 244
Restoring Configurations from a TFTP Server 244
Backing Up the Cisco IOS Software to a TFTP Server 245
Restoring/Upgrading the Cisco IOS Software from a TFTP Server 245
Restoring the Cisco IOS Software from ROM Monitor Mode Using Xmodem 246
Restoring the Cisco IOS Software Using the ROM Monitor Environmental Variables and tftpdnld Command 248
Secure Copy 248
Configuring a Secure Copy Server 249
Verifying and Troubleshooting Secure Copy 249
Configuration Example: Using Secure Copy 249
Chapter 27 Password Recovery Procedures and the Confi guration Register 251
The Configuration Register 251
A Visual Representation of the Configuration Register 251
What the Bits Mean 252
The Boot Field 252
Console Terminal Baud Rate Settings 253
Changing the Console Line Speed: CLI 253
Changing the Console Line Speed: ROM Monitor Mode 254
Password-Recovery Procedures for Cisco Routers 255
Password Recovery for 2960 Series Switches 256
Chapter 28 Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) and Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP) 259
Cisco Discovery Protocol 259
Configuring CDP 259
Verifying and Troubleshooting CDP 260
CDP Design Tips 260
Link Layer Discovery Protocol (802.1AB) 261
Configuring LLDP (802.1AB) 261
Verifying and Troubleshooting LLDP 262
Chapter 29 IOS Tools 263
Configuring a Device to Accept a Remote Telnet Connection 263
Using Telnet to Remotely Connect to Other Devices 264
Verifying Telnet 264
Internet Control Message Protocol Redirect Messages 265
The ping Command 265
Examples of Using the ping and the Extended ping Commands 266
The traceroute Command 268
Chapter 30 Device Monitoring 269
Device Monitoring 269
Simple Network Management Protocol 269
Configuring SNMP 271
Securing SNMPv1 or SNMPv2 271
Securing SNMPv3 272
Verifying SNMP 273
Configuration Backups 273
Implementing Logging 274
Configuring Syslog 274
Syslog Message Format 275
Syslog Severity Levels 275
Syslog Message Example 276
Configuring NetFlow 276
Verifying NetFlow 277
Network Time Protocol 277
Network Time Protocol Configuration 277
Verifying NTP 278
Setting the Clock on a Router 279
Using Time Stamps 283
Chapter 31 Cisco IOS Licensing 285
Cisco Licensing Earlier Than IOS 15.0 285
Cisco Licensing for the ISR G2 Platforms: IOS 15.0 and Later 287
Verifying Licenses 287
Cisco License Manager 287
Cisco Smart Software Manager 288
Installing a Permanent License 288
Installing an Evaluation License 289
Backing Up a License 289
Uninstalling a License 290
Chapter 32 Basic Troubleshooting 291
Viewing the Routing Table 291
Clearing the Routing Table 292
Determining the Gateway of Last Resort 292
Determining the Last Routing Update 292
OSI Layer 3 Testing 293
OSI Layer 7 Testing 293
Interpreting the show interface Command 293
Clearing Interface Counters 293
Using CDP to Troubleshoot 294
The traceroute Command 294
The show controllers Command 294
debug Commands 294
Using Time Stamps 294
Operating System IP Verification Commands 295
The ip http server Command 295
The netstat Command 296
The arp Command 296
Part VIII Appendixes
Appendix A Binary/Hex/Decimal Conversion Chart 297
Appendix B Create Your Own Journal Here 305
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