Learning Theories: Pearson New International Edition VitalSource eText: An Educational Perspective (6e) : 9781292033860

Learning Theories: Pearson New International Edition VitalSource eText: An Educational Perspective (6e)

 
Edition
 
6
ISBN
 
9781292033860
ISBN 10
 
129203386X
Published
 
11/07/2013
Published by
 
Pearson Higher Ed USA
Pages
 
Format
 
 
Title type
eBook
$60.00
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For Learning Theory/Cognition and Instruction, Advanced Educational Psychology, and Introductory Educational Psychology courses.

An essential resource for understanding the main principles, concepts, and research findings of key learning theories especially as they relate to educationthis proven text blends theory, research, and applications throughout, providing its readers with a coherent and unified perspective on learning in educational settings.

Table of contents
Chapter 1 — Introduction to the Study of Learning

Learning Defined

Precursors of Modern Learning Theories

Learning theory and philosophy

Beginnings of the psychological study of learning

Structuralism and functionalism

Learning Theory and Research

Functions of theory

Conducting research

Assessment of Learning

Direct observations

Written responses

Oral responses

Ratings by others

Self-reports

Relation of Learning and Instruction

Historical perspective

Instructional commonalities

Integration of theory and practice

Critical Issues for Learning Theories

How does learning occur?

What is the role of memory?

What is the role of motivation?

How does transfer occur?

Which processes are involved in self-regulation?

What are the implications for instruction?

Three Learning Scenarios

Kathy Stone’s third-grade class

Jim Marshall’s U. S. History class

Gina Brown’s educational psychology class

Summary

Further Reading



Chapter 2 — Behaviorism

Connectionism

Trial-and-error learning

Laws of exercise and effect

Other principles

Revisions to Thorndike’s theory

Instructional applications

Classical Conditioning

Basic processes

Informational variables

Biological influences

Conditioned emotional reactions

Contiguous Conditioning

Acts and movements

Associative strength

Rewards and punishments

Habit formation and change

Operant Conditioning

Conceptual framework

Basic processes

Behavioral change

Behavior modification

Self-regulation

Instructional Applications

Behavioral objectives

Learning time

Mastery learning

Programmed instruction

Contingency contracts

Summary

Further Reading



Chapter 3 — Neuroscience of Learning

Organization and Structures

Neural organization

Brain structures

Localization and interconnections

Brain research methods

Neurophysiology of Learning

Information processing system

Memory networks

Language learning

Brain Development

Influential factors

Phases of development

Critical periods

Language development

Motivation and Emotions

Motivation

Emotions

Instructional Applications

Relevance of brain research

Educational issues

Brain-based educational practices

Summary

Further Reading





Chapter 4 — Information Processing Theory

Information Processing System

Assumptions

Two-store (dual-memory) model

Alternatives to the two-store model

Attention

Theories of attention

Attention and learning

Attention and reading

Perception

Gestalt theory

Sensory registers

LTM comparisons

Two-Store Memory Model

Verbal learning

Short-term (working) memory

Long-term memory

Influences on encoding

Long-Term Memory: Storage

Propositions

Storage of knowledge

Production systems and connectionist models

Long-Term Memory: Retrieval and Forgetting

Retrieval

Language comprehension

Forgetting

Mental Imagery

Representation of spatial information

Imagery in LTM

Individual differences

Instructional Applications

Advance organizers

Conditions of learning

Cognitive load

Summary

Further Reading



Chapter 5 — Social Cognitive Theory

Conceptual Framework for Learning

Reciprocal interactions

Enactive and vicarious learning

Learning and performance

Self-regulation

Modeling Processes

Theories of imitation

Functions of modeling

Cognitive skill learning

Motor skill learning

Influences on Learning and Performance

Developmental status of learners

Model prestige and competence

Vicarious consequences to models

Motivational Processes

Goals

Outcome expectations

Values

Self-Efficacy

Conceptual overview

Self-efficacy in achievement situations

Models and self-efficacy

Motor skills

Instructional self-efficacy

Health and therapeutic activities

Instructional Applications

Models

Self-efficacy

Worked examples

Tutoring and mentoring

Summary

Further Reading



Chapter 6 — Constructivism

Constructivism: Assumptions and Perspectives

Overview

Perspectives

Situated cognition

Contributions and applications

Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

Developmental processes

Implications for instruction

Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory

Background

Basic principles

Zone of Proximal Development

Applications

Critique

Private Speech and Socially-Mediated Learning

Private speech

Verbalization and achievement

Socially mediated learning

Self-regulation

Motivation

Contextual factors

Implicit theories

Teachers’ expectations

Constructivist Learning Environments

Key features

APA Learner-Centered Principles

Instructional Applications

Discovery learning

Inquiry teaching

Peer-assisted learning

Discussions and debates

Reflective teaching

Summary

Further Reading





Chapter 7 — Cognitive Learning Processes

Skill Acquisition

General and specific skills

Novice-to-expert research methodology

Expert-novice differences in science

Conditional Knowledge and Metacognition

Conditional knowledge

Metacognition and learning

Variables influencing metacognition

Metacognition and behavior

Metacognition and reading

Concept Learning

The nature of concepts

Concept attainment

Teaching of concepts

Motivational processes

Problem Solving

Historical influences

Heuristics

Problem-solving strategies

Problem solving and learning

Experts and novices

Reasoning

Implications for instruction

Transfer

Historical views

Activation of knowledge in memory

Types of transfer

Strategy transfer

Teaching for transfer

Technology and Instruction

Computer-based learning environments

Distance learning

Future directions

Instructional Applications

Worked examples

Writing

Mathematics

Summary

Further Reading



Chapter 8 — Self-Regulation

Behavioral Theory

Self-monitoring

Self-instruction

Self-reinforcement

Social Cognitive Theory

Conceptual framework

Social cognitive processes

Cyclical nature of self-regulation

Social and self influences

Information Processing Theory

Model of self-regulation

Learning strategies

Constructivist Theory

Socilcultural influences

Implicit theories

Motivation and Self-Regulation

Volition

Values

Self-schemas

Help seeking

Instructional Applications

Academic studying

Writing

Mathematics

Summary

Further Reading



Chapter 9 — Motivation

Historical Perspectives

Drive theory

Conditioning theory

Cognitive consistency theory

Humanistic theory

Model of Motivated Learning

Pretask

During task

Posttask

Achievement Motivation

Expectancy-value theory

Familial influences

Contemporary model of achievement motivation

Self-worth theory

Task and ego involvement

Attribution Theory

Locus of control

Naïve analysis of action

Attribution theory of achievement

Social Cognitive Theory

Goals and expectations

Social comparison

Goal Theory

Goal orientations

Conceptions of ability

Perceptions of Control

Control beliefs

Learned helplessness

Students with learning problems

Self-Concept

Dimensions and development

Self-concept and learning

Intrinsic motivation

Theoretical perspectives

Overjustification and reward

Instructional Applications

Achievement motivation training

Attribution change programs

Goal orientations

Summary

Further Reading



Chapter 10 — Development

Beginnings of the Scientific Study of Development

Historical foundations

Philosophical foundations

The Child Study Movement

Perspectives on Human Development

Issues relevant to learning

Types of developmental theories

Structural theories

Bruner’s Theory of Cognitive Growth

Cognitive growth and knowledge representation

Spiral curriculum

Contemporary Developmental Themes

Developmental changes

Developmentally appropriate instruction

Transitions in schooling

Family Influences

Socioeconomic status

Home environment

Parental involvement

Electronic media

Motivation and Development

Developmental changes

Implications

Instructional Applications

Learning styles

Case’s instructional model

Teacher-student interactions

Summary

Further Reading

Glossary

References

Author Index

Subject Index
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