Introductory Chemistry, Global Edition (5e) : 9781292057811

Introductory Chemistry, Global Edition (5e)

Published by
Pearson Higher Ed USA
In stock
Title type
Title type
Title type
Title type

For one-semester courses in Preparatory Chemistry

Make chemistry relevant to students

Now in its fifth edition, Introductory Chemistry continues to foster deep engagement in the course by showing how chemistry manifests in students’ daily lives. Author Nivaldo Tro draws upon his classroom experience as an award-winning instructor to extend chemistry from the laboratory to the student’s world, capturing student attention with relevant applications and a captivating writing style.

This program provides a better teaching and learning experience—for you and your students. It will help you to: 
• • Enable deep conceptual understanding: Several new Conceptual Checkpoints and Self- Assessment Quizzes help students better grasp key concepts.
• Foster development of problem-solving skills: A step-by-step framework encourages students to think logically rather than simply memorize formulas. Additional worked examples, enhanced with audio and video, reinforce challenging problems.  
• Encourage interest in chemistry: The inclusion of concrete examples of key ideas throughout the program keeps students engaged in the material.

Personalize learning with (optional) MasteringChemistry®: This data-validated online homework, tutorial, and assessment program helps students quickly master concepts, and enables instructors to provide timely intervention when necessary.

Table of contents


1. The Chemical World
2. Measurement and Problem Solving
3. Matter and Energy
4. Atoms and Elements
5. Molecules and Compounds
6. Chemical Composition
7. Chemical Reactions
8. Quantities in Chemical Reactions
9. Electrons in Atoms and the Periodic Table
10. Chemical Bonding
11. Gases
12. Liquids, Solids, and Intermolecular Forces
13. Solutions
14. Acids and Bases
15. Chemical Equilibrium
16. Oxidation and Reduction
17. Radioactivity and Nuclear Chemistry
18. Organic Chemistry
19. Biochemistry


1. The Chemical World
1.1 Soda Pop Fizz
1.2 Chemicals Compose Ordinary Things
1.3 All Things Are Made of Atoms and Molecules
1.4 The Scientific Method: How Chemists Think
1.5 A Beginning Chemist: How to Succeed

2. Measurement and Problem Solving
2.1 Measuring Global Temperatures
2.2 Scientific Notation: Writing Large and Small Numbers
2.3 Significant Figures: Writing Numbers to Reflect Precision
2.4 Significant Figures in Calculations
2.5 The Basic Units of Measurement
2.6 Problem Solving and Unit Conversion
2.7 Solving Multistep Conversion Problems
2.8 Units Raised to a Power
2.9 Density
2.10 Numerical Problem-Solving Strategies and the Solution Map

3. Matter and Energy
3.1 In Your Room
3.2 What Is Matter?
3.3 Classifying Matter According to Its State: Solid, Liquid, and Gas
3.4 Classifying Matter According to Its Composition: Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures
3.5 Differences in Matter: Physical and Chemical Properties
3.6 Changes in Matter: Physical and Chemical Changes
3.7 Conservation of Mass: There is No New Matter
3.8 Energy
3.9 Energy and Chemical and Physical Change
3.10 Temperature: Random Motion of Molecules and Atoms
3.11 Temperature Changes: Heat Capacity
3.12 Energy and Heat Capacity Calculations

4. Atoms and Elements
4.1 Experiencing Atoms at Tiburon  
4.2 Indivisible: The Atomic Theory  
4.3 The Nuclear Atom  
4.4 The Properties of Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons  
4.5 Elements: Defined by Their Numbers of Protons  
4.6 Looking for Patterns: The Periodic Law and the Periodic Table  
4.7 Ions: Losing and Gaining Electrons   
4.8 Isotopes: When the Number of Neutrons Varies  
4.9 Atomic Mass: The Average Mass of an Element’s Atoms  

5.  Molecules and Compounds
5.1 Sugar and Salt  
5.2 Compounds Display Constant Composition  
5.3 Chemical Formulas: How to Represent Compounds  
5.4 A Molecular View of Elements and Compounds  
5.5 Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds  
5.6 Nomenclature: Naming Compounds  
5.7 Naming Ionic Compounds  
5.8 Naming Molecular Compounds  
5.9 Naming Acids  
5.10 Nomenclature Summary  
5.11 Formula Mass: The Mass of a Molecule or Formula Unit  

6. Chemical Composition
6.1 How Much Sodium?  
6.2 Counting Nails by the Pound  
6.3 Counting Atoms by the Gram  
6.4 Counting Molecules by the Gram  
6.5 Chemical Formulas as Conversion Factors  
6.6 Mass Percent Composition of Compounds 
6.7 Mass Percent Composition from a Chemical Formula  
6.8 Calculating Empirical Formulas for Compounds  
6.9 Calculating Molecular Formulas for Compounds

7.  Chemical Reactions
7.1 Grade School Volcanoes, Automobiles, and Laundry Detergents  
7.2 Evidence of a Chemical Reaction  
7.3 The Chemical Equation  
7.4 How to Write Balanced Chemical Equations  
7.5 Aqueous Solutions and Solubility: Compounds Dissolved in Water  
7.6 Precipitation Reactions: Reactions in Aqueous Solution That Form a Solid  
7.7 Writing Chemical Equations for Reactions in Solution: Molecular, Complete Ionic, and Net Ionic Equations  
7.8 Acid—Base and Gas Evolution Reactions  
7.9 Oxidation—Reduction Reactions  
7.10 Classifying Chemical Reactions  

8. Quantities in Chemical Reactions
8.1 Climate Change: Too Much Carbon Dioxide 
8.2 Making Pancakes: Relationships between Ingredients  
8.3 Making Molecules: Mole-to-Mole Conversions  
8.4 Making Molecules: Mass-to-Mass Conversions  
8.5 More Pancakes: Limiting Reactant, Theoretical Yield, and Percent Yield  
8.6 Limiting Reactant, Theoretical Yield, and Percent Yield from Initial Masses of Reactants  
8.7 Enthalpy: A Measure of the Heat Evolved or Absorbed in a Reaction  

9. Electrons in Atoms and the Periodic Table
9.1 Blimps, Balloons, and Models of the Atom  
9.2 Light: Electromagnetic Radiation  
9.3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum  
9.4 The Bohr Model: Atoms with Orbits  
9.5 The Quantum-Mechanical Model: Atoms with Orbitals  
9.6 Quantum-Mechanical Orbitals and Electron Configurations  
9.7 Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table  
9.8 The Explanatory Power of the Quantum-Mechanical Model  
9.9 Periodic Trends: Atomic Size, Ionization Energy, and Metallic Character  

10. Chemical Bonding
10.1 Bonding Models and AIDS Drugs  
10.2 Representing Valence Electrons with Dots  
10.3 Lewis Structures of Ionic Compounds: Electrons Transferred  
10.4 Covalent Lewis Structures: Electrons Shared  
10.5 Writing Lewis Structures for Covalent Compounds  
10.6 Resonance: Equivalent Lewis Structures for the Same Molecule  
10.7 Predicting the Shapes of Molecules  
10.8 Electronegativity and Polarity: Why Oil and Water Don’t Mix  

11. Gases
11.1 Extra-Long Straws 
11.2 Kinetic Molecular Theory: A Model for Gases  
11.3 Pressure: The Result of Constant Molecular Collisions  
11.4 Boyle’s Law: Pressure and Volume  
11.5 Charles’s Law: Volume and Temperature  
11.6 The Combined Gas Law: Pressure, Volume, and Temperature  
11.7 Avogadro’s Law: Volume and Moles  
11.8 The Ideal Gas Law: Pressure, Volume, Temperature, and Moles  
11.9 Mixtures of Gases: Why Deep-Sea Divers Breathe a Mixture of Helium and Oxygen 
11.10 Gases in Chemical Reactions  

12. Liquids, Solids, and Intermolecular Forces
12.1 Interactions between Molecules  
12.2 Properties of Liquids and Solids  
12.3 Intermolecular Forces in Action: Surface Tension and Viscosity  
12.4 Evaporation and Condensation  
12.5 Melting, Freezing, and Sublimation  
12.6 Types of Intermolecular Forces: Dispersion, Dipole—Dipole, Hydrogen Bonding, and Ion-Dipole 
12.7 Types of Crystalline Solids: Molecular, Ionic, and Atomic 
12.8 Water: A Remarkable Molecule 

13. Solutions
13.1 Tragedy in Cameroon 
13.2 Solutions: Homogeneous Mixtures  
13.3 Solutions of Solids Dissolved in Water: How to Make Rock Candy  
13.4 Solutions of Gases in Water: How Soda Pop Gets Its Fizz  
13.5 Specifying Solution Concentration: Mass Percent  
13.6 Specifying Solution Concentration: Molarity  
13.7 Solution Dilution  
13.8 Solution Stoichiometry
13.9 Freezing Point Depression and Boiling Point Elevation: Making Water Freeze Colder and Boil Hotter  
13.10 Osmosis: Why Drinking Salt Water Causes Dehydration  

14. Acids and Bases
14.1 Sour Patch Kids and International Spy Movies 
14.2 Acids: Properties and Examples 
14.3 Bases: Properties and Examples 
14.4 Molecular Definitions of Acids and Bases  
14.5 Reactions of Acids and Bases  
14.6 Acid—Base Titration: A Way to Quantify the Amount of Acid or Base in a Solution  
14.7 Strong and Weak Acids and Bases  
14.8 Water: Acid and Base in One 
14.9 The pH and pOH Scales: Ways to Express Acidity and Basicity  
14.10 Buffers: Solutions That Resist pH Change  

15. Chemical Equilibrium
15.1 Life: Controlled Disequilibrium  
15.2 The Rate of a Chemical Reaction 
15.3 The Idea of Dynamic Chemical Equilibrium  
15.4 The Equilibrium Constant: A Measure of How Far a Reaction Goes  
15.5 Heterogeneous Equilibria: The Equilibrium Expression for Reactions Involving a Solid or a Liquid 
15.6 Calculating and Using Equilibrium Constants  
15.7 Disturbing a Reaction at Equilibrium: Le Ch®telier’s Principle 
15.8 The Effect of a Concentration Change on Equilibrium 
15.9 The Effect of a Volume Change on Equilibrium  
15.10 The Effect of a Temperature Change on Equilibrium  
15.11 The Solubility-Product Constant 
15.12 The Path of a Reaction and the Effect of a Catalyst  

16. Oxidation and Reduction
16.1 The End of the Internal Combustion Engine? 
16.2 Oxidation and Reduction: Some Definitions  
16.3 Oxidation States: Electron Bookkeeping
16.4 Balancing Redox Equations  
16.5 The Activity Series: Predicting Spontaneous Redox Reactions  
16.6 Batteries: Using Chemistry to Generate Electricity  
16.7 Electrolysis: Using Electricity to Do Chemistry  
16.8 Corrosion: Undesirable Redox Reactions  

17. Radioactivity and Nuclear Chemistry

17.1 Diagnosing Appendicitis  
17.2 The Discovery of Radioactivity  
17.3 Types of Radioactivity: Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Decay  
17.4 Detecting Radioactivity
17.5 Natural Radioactivity and Half-Life  
17.6 Radiocarbon Dating: Using Radioactivity to Measure the Age of Fossils and Other Artifacts  
17.7 The Discovery of Fission and the Atomic Bomb  
17.8 Nuclear Power: Using Fission to Generate Electricity  
17.9 Nuclear Fusion: The Power of the Sun  
17.10 The Effects of Radiation on Life  
17.11 Radioactivity in Medicine  

18. Organic Chemistry
18.1 What Do I Smell?  
18.2 Vitalism: The Difference between Organic and Inorganic  
18.3 Carbon: A Versatile Atom  
18.4 Hydrocarbons: Compounds Containing Only Carbon and Hydrogen  
18.5 Alkanes: Saturated Hydrocarbons  
18.6 Isomers: Same Formula, Different Structure  
18.7 Naming Alkanes  
18.8 Alkenes and Alkynes  
18.9 Hydrocarbon Reactions  
18.10 Aromatic Hydrocarbons  
18.11 Functional Groups  
18.12 Alcohols  
18.13 Ethers  
18.14 Aldehydes and Ketones  
18.15 Carboxylic Acids and Esters  
18.16 Amines  
18.17 Polymers  

19. Biochemistry
19.1 The Human Genome Project  
19.2 The Cell and Its Main Chemical Components  
19.3 Carbohydrates: Sugar, Starch, and Fiber  
19.4 Lipids  
19.5 Proteins  
19.6 Protein Structure  
19.7 Nucleic Acids: Molecular Blueprints  
19.8 DNA Structure, DNA Replication, and Protein Synthesis


Features & benefits

Enable deep conceptual understanding

Conceptual Checkpoints reinforce conceptual understanding of the most complex material. Strategically placed throughout each chapter, they prompt students to think about concepts and solve problems without doing any math. Answers and explanations appear at the end of each chapter.

NEW! The fifth edition includes more than 20 new Conceptual Checkpoints, focused on visualizations and drawing as requested by reviewers. These additions reinforce the program’s focus on helping students understand all relevant concepts.

NEW! Key Learning Outcomes that correlate to the Chemical Skills and Examples in the end-of-chapter material and to the content within MasteringChemistry have been added to each chapter section. Each section (after the introductory sections) includes at least one learning outcome summarizing the key learning objective to help students focus and assess their progress.

NEW! Chapter Self-Assessment Quizzes at the end of each chapter provide opportunities for students to assess what they’ve learned. Each quiz consists of 10–15 multiple-choice questions similar to those found on standard exams.

NEW! 3-4 Questions for Group Work have been added to the end-of-chapter problems in each chapter to facilitate guided-inquiry learning both inside and outside the classroom. 

Multipart molecular images depicted through Macroscopic, Microscopic, and Symbolic perspectives enable students to better visualize, and thus understand, chemistry.
• These multipart images help students to see the relationships among the formulas they write down on paper (symbolic), the world they see around them (macroscopic), and the atoms and molecules that compose that world (molecular).
• Abundant molecular-level views reveal the connections between everyday processes visible to the eye and the activities of atoms and molecules. 
• Extensive labels and annotations for each illustration direct students to key elements in the art and help them to understand the processes depicted.

Three-part visual images include a photograph of a real-world object or process, a depiction of what is taking place on the molecular level (either superimposed or shown as a magnified breakout), and a representation using chemical formulas. This three-tiered view helps students to visualize and understand key concepts.
In addition to structural formulas, many molecular formulas in the text are also depicted with molecular illustrations for greater clarity and vividness. In addition, macro/micro illustrations are included.
Using a hierarchical method of labeling imagesIntroductory Chemistry presents complex information clearly and concisely by making the relationships between related labels and annotations immediately evident to students.

NEW! Coverage of atomic masses has been revised to reflect recent changes made by IUPAC that introduce more uncertainty in atomic masses. The program’s periodic table itself has been revised to reflect the recommended atomic masses for “unspecified samples,” including using the value of 32.06 amu for S and 6.94 amu for Li.

Foster development of problem-solving skills 

NEW! Twenty Interactive Worked Examples instruct students how to break down problems using Tro’s “Sort, Strategize, Solve, and Check” technique in an interactive, digital format. These problems are incorporated in MasteringChemistry as assignable activities, and may also be accessed from links with the eText, the QR code on the back cover of the printed text, and the Instructor Resource Center (

In the ‘Strategize’ step for many examples, students are prompted to draw a solution map for the problem at hand. This features walks students through how to use conversion factors and equations to outline the steps needed to get from the given to the unknown.
Examples are presented in several formats that foster problem-solving skills and enable understanding.
• All but the simplest examples are presented in a two-column format. The left column acts as the instructor’s voice, explaining the purpose of each step, while the right column shows how the step is executed. This format encourages students to think critically about problem solving, and to view each step in the context of the overall plan.
• Specific procedures for solving particular types of problems are presented in a three-column format. The first column outlines the problem-solving procedure and explains the reasoning that underlies each step. The second and third columns show how the steps are implemented for two typical examples. Seeing the method applied to two related but slightly different problems helps students better understand the general procedure. 
Every worked example is followed by at least one similar, but un-worked, skill-builder exercise, which allows students to immediately test the problem-solving techniques they have just learned.

The For More Practice feature, which follows every worked example, links to additional in-chapter examples and end-of-chapter problems, providing opportunities for students to practice the particular skills in question. 

NEW! In-text cross-references to the math index appear throughout the program, to make sure students are aware that math help is available right at their fingertips.

Encourage interest in chemistry

In the text’s engaging chapter openers, Dr. Tro offers a specific example of the concept at hand to grab students' attention, steps back to make a more general and relatable analogy, and then delves into specifics. This style of presenting information is reinforced by Dr. Tro’s classroom experiences and is also commonly employed by other successful science writers.

Interest boxes of four types throughout the text keep students engaged in the course.
• Everyday Chemistry boxes demonstrate the importance of chemistry in everyday situations, such as bleaching your hair.
• Chemistry in the Media boxes discuss chemical topics that have been in the news, such as the controversy over oxygenated fuels.
• Chemistry and Health boxes focus on biomedical topics as well as those related to personal health and fitness.
• Chemistry in the Environment boxes discuss environmental issues that are closely tied to chemistry, such as acid rain and the ozone hole.


Author biography

Nivaldo Tro is Professor of Chemistry at Westmont College in Santa Barbara, California, where he has been a faculty member since 1990. He received his Ph.D. in chemistry from Stanford University, for work on developing and using optical techniques to study the adsorption and desorption of molecules to and from surfaces in ultrahigh vacuum. He then went on to the University of California at Berkeley, where he did post-doctoral research on ultra-fast reaction dynamics in solution. Since coming to Westmont, Professor Tro has been awarded grants from the American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund, from Research Corporation, and from the National Science Foundation to study the dynamics of various processes occurring in thin layer films adsorbed on dielectric surfaces. He has been honored as Westmont's outstanding teacher of the year three times and has also received the college's outstanding researcher of the year award. Professor Tro lives in Santa Barbara with his wife, Ann, and their four children, Michael, Ali, Kyle, and Kaden. In his leisure time, Professor Tro enjoys mountain biking, surfing, reading to his children, and being outdoors with his family.

Student supplements