Writing Research Papers: A Complete Guide, Global Edition VitalSource eText (15e) : 9781292076904

Writing Research Papers: A Complete Guide, Global Edition VitalSource eText (15e)

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About the book

The definitive research paper guide, Writing Research Papers combines a traditional and practical approach to the research process with the latest information on electronic research and presentation.

This market-leading text provides students with step-by-step guidance through the research writing process, from selecting and narrowing a topic to formatting the finished document. Writing Research Papers backs up its instruction with the most complete array of samples of any writing guide of this nature. The text continues its extremely thorough and accurate coverage of citation styles for a wide variety of disciplines. The fifteenth edition maintains Lester's successful approach while bringing new writing and documentation updates to assist the student researcher in keeping pace with electronic sources.

Table of contents
Chapter 1 Writing from Research
1a Why Do Research?
1b Learning The Conventions of Academic Writing
1c Understanding and Avoiding Plagiarism
1d Understanding a Research Assignment
Understanding the Terminology
1e Establishing a Research Schedule

Chapter 2 Finding a Topic
2a Relating Your Personal Ideas to a Scholarly Problem
Connecting Personal Experience to Scholarly Topics
Speculating about Your Subject to Discover Ideas and to Focus on the
2b Talking with Others to Find and Refine the Topic
Personal Interviews and Discussions
Online Discussion Groups
2c Using Online Searches to Refine Your Topic
Using an Online Subject Directory
Using an Internet Keyword Search
2d Using the Library’s Electronic Databases to Find and Narrow a Subject
2e Using the Library’s Electronic Book Catalog to Find a Topic
2f Developing a Thesis Statement, Enthymeme, or Hypothesis
2g Drafting a Research Proposal
The Short Proposal
The Long Proposal
Your Research Project

Chapter 3 Organizing Ideas and Setting Goals
3a Using a Basic Order to Chart the Course of Your Work
3b Using Your Research Proposal to Direct Your Notetaking
3c Listing Key Terms and Phrases to Set Directions for Notetaking
3d Writing a Rough Outline
3e Using Questions to Identify Issues
3f Setting Goals by Using Organizational Patterns
3g Using Approaches across the Curriculum to Chart Your Ideas
3h Using Your Thesis to Chart the Direction of Your Research
Your Research Project

Chapter 4 Gathering Sources Online
4a Beginning an Online Search
CHECKLIST: Evaluating Internet Sources
4b Reading an Online Address
4c Using Keyword and Boolean Expressions
Subject Directory Search Engines
Robot-Driven Search Engines
Metasearch Engines
Specialized Search Engines
Educational Search Engines
Educational Search Engines Maintained by Libraries
4d Using RSS and Social Bookmarking
RSS Feeds
Web and Social Bookmarking
4e Searching for Articles in Journals and Magazines
Online journals
Online Magazines
4f Searching for Articles in Newspapers and Media Sources
4g Searching for Photographs and Other Visual Sources
4h Accessing E-Books
4i Using Listserv, Usenet, Blogs, and Chat Groups
E-mail News Groups
Real-Time Chatting
4j Examining Library Holdings via Online Access
4k Finding an Internet Bibliography
4l Conducting Archival Research on the Internet
Go to the Library
Go to an Edited Search Engine
Go to a Metasearch Engine
Go to a Listserv or Usenet Group
Utilize Newspaper Archives
Your Research Project

Chapter 5 Gathering Data in the Library
5a Launching the Search
5b Developing a Working Bibliography
5c Finding Books on Your Topic
Using Your Library’s Electronic Book Catalog
Using the Library’s Bibliographies
5d Finding Articles in Magazines and Journals
Searching the General Indexes to Periodicals
Finding Indexes by Topic in Appendix B
Readers’ Guide to Periodical Literature
Social Sciences Index
Humanities Index
Searching for an Index to Abstracts
Searching for Abstracts of Dissertations
5e Searching for a Biography
Biography Index
Current Biography Yearbook
Contemporary Authors
Dictionary of Literary Biography
5f Searching for Articles in the Newspaper Indexes
5g Searching Special Subject Directories
5h Searching for Government Documents
5i Searching for Essays within Books
Your Research Project

Chapter 6 Conducting Field Research
6a Investigating Local Sources
Interviewing Knowledgeable People
Writing Letters and Corresponding by E-mail
Reading Personal Papers
Attending Lectures and Public Addresses
6b Investigating Government Documents
6c Examining Audiovisual Materials, Television, and Radio
6d Conducting a Survey with a Questionnaire
6e Conducting Experiments, Tests, and Observation
Your Research Project

Chapter 7 Understanding and Avoiding Plagiarism
7a Using Sources to Enhance your Credibility
7b Placing Your Work in Its Proper Context
7c Understanding Copyright
7d Avoiding Plagiarism
Common Knowledge
Correctly Borrowing from a Source
7e Sharing Credit in Collaborative Projects
7f Honoring and Crediting Sources in Online Classrooms
7g Seeking Permission to Publish Material on Your Web Site
Your Research Project

Chapter 8 Reading and Evaluating Sources
8a Finding Reliable Sources
8b Selecting a Mix of both Primary and Secondary Sources
8c Evaluating Sources
Evaluating the Key Parts of an Article
Evaluating the Key Parts of a Book
Evaluating the Key Parts of an Internet Article
8d Outlining a Source
8e Summarizing a Source
8f Preparing an Annotated Bibliography
8g Preparing a Review of the Literature on a Topic
Your Research Project

Chapter 9 Writing Effective Notes and Creating Outlines
Gathering Printouts, Photocopies, Scanned Images, and Downloaded Data
Writing Notes of High Quality
9a Creating Effective Notes
Honoring the Conventions of Research Style
Using a Computer for Notetaking
9b Writing Personal Notes
9c Writing Direct Quotation Notes
Quoting Primary Sources
Quoting Secondary Sources
9d Writing Paraphrased Notes
9e Writing Summary Notes
9f Writing Précis Notes
Use the Précis to Review Briefly an Article or Book
Use the Précis to Write an Annotated Bibliography
Use the Précis in a Plot Summary Note
Use the Précis As the Form for an Abstract
9g Writing Notes from Field Research
9h Creating Outlines Using Academic Models
A General All-Purpose Model
Model for Advancing Your Ideas and Theories
Model for the Analysis of Creative Works
Model for Argument and Persuasion Papers
Model for Analysis of History
Model for a Comparative Study
9i Writing a Formal Outline
Using Standard Outline Symbols
Writing a Formal Topic Outline
Writing a Formal Sentence Outline
Your Research Project

Chapter 10 Drafting the Paper in an Academic Style
10a Focusing Your Argument
Maintaining a Focus on Objective Facts and Subjective Ideas
10b Refining the Thesis Statement
Using Questions to Focus the Thesis
Adjust or Change Your Thesis during Research if Necessary
10c Writing an Academic Title
10d Drafting the Paper from Your Research Journal, Notes, and Computer Files
Writing from Your Notes
Writing with Unity and Coherence
Writing in the Proper Tense
Using the Language of the Discipline
Using Source Material to Enhance Your Writing
Writing in the Third Person
Writing with the Passive Voice in an Appropriate Manner
10e Using Visuals Effectively in a Research Essay
File Formats
10f Avoiding Sexist and Biased Language
Your Research Project

Chapter 11 Blending Reference Material into Your Writing by Using MLA Style
11a Blending Reference Citations into Your Text
Making a General Reference without a Page Number
Beginning with the Author and Ending with a Page Number
Putting the Page Number Immediately after the Name
Putting the Name and Page Number at the End of Borrowed Material
11b Citing a Source When No Author Is Listed
Citing the Title of a Magazine Article
Citing the Title of a Report
Citing the Name of a Publisher or a Corporate Body
11c Citing Nonprint Sources That Have No Page Number
11d Citing Internet Sources
Identify the Source with Name or Title
Identify the Nature of the Information and Its Credibility
Omitting Page and Paragraph Numbers to Internet Citations
11e Citing Indirect Sources
11f Citing Frequent Page References to the Same Work
11g Citing Material from Textbooks and Large Anthologies
11h Adding Extra Information to In-text Citations
One of Several Volumes
Two or More Works by the Same Writer
Several Authors in One Citation
Additional Information with the Page Number
11i Punctuating Citations Properly and With Consistency
Commas and Periods
Semicolons and Colons
Question Marks and Exclamation Marks
Single Quotation Marks
11j Indenting Long Quotations
11k Citing Poetry
Quoting Two Lines of Poetry or Less
Quoting Three Lines of Poetry or More
Indenting Turnovers for Long Lines of Poetry
Retaining Internal Quotations within a Block
Providing Translations
11l Handling Quotations from a Play
11m Altering Initial Capitals in Some Quoted Matter
11n Omitting Quoted Matter with Ellipsis Points
11o Altering Quotations with Parentheses and Brackets
Your Research Project

Chapter 12 Writing the Introduction, Body, and Conclusion
12a Writing the Introduction of the Paper
Provide the Thesis Statement
Provide the Enthymeme
Provide a Hypothesis
Relate to the Well Known
Provide Background Information
Review the Literature
Review the History and Background of the Subject
Take Exception to Critical Views
Challenge an Assumption
Provide a Brief Summary
Define Key Terms
Supply Data, Statistics, and Special Evidence
12b Writing the Body of the Research Paper
Organize by Chronology
Compare or Contrast Issues, Critical Views, and Literary Characters
Develop Cause and Effect
Define Your Key Terminology
Explain a Process
Ask Questions and Provide Answers
Cite Evidence from the Source Materials
Use a Variety of Other Methods
12c Writing the Conclusion of the Research Paper
Restate the Thesis and Reach beyond It
Close With an Effective Quotation
Return the Focus of a Literary Study to the Author
Compare the Past to the Present
Offer a Directive or Solution
Discuss Test Results
Your Research Project

Chapter 13 Revising, Proofreading, and Formatting the Rough Draft
13a Conducting a Global Revision
Revising the Introduction
Revising the Body
Revising the Conclusion
Participating in Peer Review
13b Formatting the Paper to MLA Style
Title Page or Opening Page
The Text of the Paper
Content Endnotes Page
Works Cited
13c Editing Before Typing or Printing the Final Manuscript
Using the Computer to Edit Your Text
13d Proofreading on the Screen and on the Printed Manuscript
Your Research Project
13e Sample Research Papers in MLA Style
Short Literary Research Paper
Sample Research Paper

Chapter 14 Works Cited: MLA Style
14a Formatting the Works Cited Page
Index to Works Cited Models: MLA STYLE
14b Works Cited Form – Internet Sources
14c Works Cited Form – Citing Database and CD-ROM Sources
Other Electronic Sources
14d Works Cited Form – Books
14e Works Cited Form – Periodicals
14f Works Cited Form – Newspapers
14g Works Cited Form – Government Documents
14h Works Cited Form – Other Sources

Chapter 15 Writing in APA Style
15a Writing Theory, Reporting Test Results, or Reviewing Literature
Theoretical Article
Report of an Empirical Study
Review Article
15b Writing in the Proper Tense for an APA Research Paper
15c Using In-text Citations in APA Style
15d Preparing the List of References
Index to Bibliographic Models: APA style
Nonprint Material
Internet Sources
World Wide Web Sites
Article from a Library Database
15e Formatting an APA Paper
Theoretical Article
Report of Empirical Research
Review Article
15f Writing the Abstract
15g Sample Paper in APA Style

Chapter 16 The Footnote System: CMS Style
16a Inserting a Superscript Numeral in Your Text
16b Formatting and Writing the Footnotes
16c Writing Footnotes for Electronic Sources
16d Writing Subsequent Footnote References
16e Writing Endnotes rather than Footnotes
16f Writing Content Footnotes or Content Endnotes
16g Using the Footnote System for Papers in the Humanities
16h Writing a Bibliography Page for a Paper That Uses Footnotes
16i Sample Research Paper in the CMS Style

Chapter 17 CSE Style for the Natural and Applied Sciences
Guide by Discipline
Index to Bibliographic Models: CSE style
17a Writing In-Text Citations Using the CSE Citation-Sequence System
17b Writing a Reference Page
17c Writing In-Text Citations with Name and Year
17d Using Name-Year with Bibliography Entries
17e Sample Paper Using the CSE Citation-Sequence System

Chapter 18 Creating Electronic Research Projects
18a Beginning the Electronic Project
18b Building Electronic Presentations
18c Research Paper Web Pages and Sites
Creating a Single Web Page
Importing, Entering, and Modifying Text
Citing Your Sources in a Web Research Paper
18d Using Graphics in Your Electronic Research Paper
Graphic File Formats
Creating Your Own Digital Graphics
18e Using Sound and Video in Your Electronic Research Paper
18f Preparing a Writing Portfolio
18g Presenting Research in Alternative Formats
Your Research Project

Appendix A Glossary: Rules and Techniques for Preparing the Manuscript in MLA Style
Appendix B Finding Reference Works for Your General Topic
Historic Issues of Events, People, and Artifacts
Scientific Issues in Physics, Astronomy, and Engineering
Issues of Health, Fitness, and Athletics
Social and Political Issues
Issues in the Arts, Literature, Music, and Language
Environmental Issues, Genetics, and the Earth Sciences
Issues in Communication and Information Technology
Issues in Religion, Philosophy, and Psychology
Issues in Business and Economics
Popular Culture, Current Events, and Modem Trends
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