Introductory Chemistry in SI Units, Global Edition eBook (6e) : 9781292229782

Introductory Chemistry in SI Units, Global Edition eBook (6e)

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Pearson Higher Ed USA
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About the book: or one-semester courses in Preparatory Chemistry. Builds 21st century and problem solving skills, preparing students for success

Now in its 6th Edition, the best-selling Introductory Chemistry continues to encourage student interest by showing how chemistry manifests in students’ daily lives. Author Nivaldo Tro draws upon his classroom experience as an award-winning instructor to extend chemistry from the laboratory to the student’s world, capturing student attention with relevant applications and an engaging writing style. The text provides a superior teaching and learning experience, enabling deep conceptual understanding, fostering the development of problem-solving skills, and encouraging interest in chemistry with concrete examples. Extending chemistry from the lab to the student’s world, the text reveals that anyone can master chemistry.

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Table of contents
1 The Chemical World

1.1 Sand and Water

1.2 Chemicals Compose Ordinary Things

1.3 The Scientific Method: How Chemists Think

1.4 Analyzing and Interpreting Data

1.5 A Beginning Chemist: How to Succeed

2 Measurement and Problem Solving

2.1 The Metric Mix-up: A $125 Million Unit Error

2.2 Scientific Notation: Writing Large and Small Numbers

2.3 Significant Figures: Writing Numbers to Reflect Precision

2.4 Significant Figures in Calculations

2.5 The Basic Units of Measurement

2.6 Problem Solving and Unit Conversion

2.7 Solving Multistep Unit Conversion Problems

2.8 Unit Conversion in Both the Numerator and Denominator

2.9 Units Raised to a Power

2.10 Density

2.11 Numerical Problem-Solving Strategies and the Solution Map

3 Matter and Energy

3.1 In Your Room

3.2 What Is Matter?

3.3 Classifying Matter According to Its State: Solid, Liquid, and Gas

3.4 Classifying Matter According to Its Composition: Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures

3.5 Differences in Matter: Physical and Chemical Properties

3.6 Changes in Matter: Physical and Chemical Changes

3.7 Conservation of Mass: There Is No New Matter

3.8 Energy

3.9 Energy and Chemical and Physical Change

3.10 Temperature: Random Motion of Molecules and Atoms

3.11 Temperature Changes: Heat Capacity

3.12 Energy and Heat Capacity Calculations

4 Atoms and Elements

4.1 Experiencing Atoms at Tiburon

4.2 Indivisible: The Atomic Theory

4.3 The Nuclear Atom

4.4 The Properties of Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons

4.5 Elements: Defined by Their Numbers of Protons

4.6 Looking for Patterns: The Periodic Law and the Periodic Table

4.7 Ions: Losing and Gaining Electrons

4.8 Isotopes: When the Number of Neutrons Varies

4.9 Atomic Mass: The Average Mass of an Element’s Atoms

5 Molecules and Compounds

5.1 Sugar and Salt

5.2 Compounds Display Constant Composition

5.3 Chemical Formulas: How to Represent Compounds

5.4 A Molecular View of Elements and Compounds

5.5 Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds

5.6 Nomenclature: Naming Compounds

5.7 Naming Ionic Compounds

5.8 Naming Molecular Compounds

5.9 Naming Acids

5.10 Nomenclature Summary

5.11 Formula Mass: The Mass of a Molecule or Formula Unit

6 Chemical Composition

6.1 How Much Sodium?

6.2 Counting Nails by the Pound

6.3 Counting Atoms by the Gram

6.4 Counting Molecules by the Gram

6.5 Chemical Formulas as Conversion Factors

6.6 Mass Percent Composition of Compounds

6.7 Mass Percent Composition from a Chemical Formula

6.8 Calculating Empirical Formulas for Compounds

6.9 Calculating Molecular Formulas for Compounds

7 Chemical Reactions

7.1 Grade School Volcanoes, Automobiles, and Laundry Detergents

7.2 Evidence of a Chemical Reaction

7.3 The Chemical Equation

7.4 How to Write Balanced Chemical Equations

7.5 Aqueous Solutions and Solubility: Compounds Dissolved in Water

7.6 Precipitation Reactions: Reactions in Aqueous Solution That Form a Solid

7.7 Writing Chemical Equations for Reactions in Solution: Molecular, Complete Ionic, and Net Ionic Equations

7.8 Acid—Base and Gas Evolution Reactions

7.9 Oxidation—Reduction Reactions

7.10 Classifying Chemical Reactions

8 Quantities in Chemical Reactions

8.1 Climate Change: Too Much Carbon Dioxide

8.2 Making Pancakes: Relationships between Ingredients

8.3 Making Molecules: Mole-to-Mole Conversions

8.4 Making Molecules: Mass-to-Mass Conversions

8.5 More Pancakes: Limiting Reactant, Theoretical Yield, and Percent Yield

8.6 Limiting Reactant[JJ2] , Theoretical Yield, and Percent Yield from Initial Masses of Reactants

8.7 Enthalpy: A Measure of the Heat Evolved or Absorbed in a Reaction

9 Electrons in Atoms and the Periodic Table

9.1 Blimps, Balloons, and Models of the Atom

9.2 Light: Electromagnetic Radiation

9.3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum

9.4 The Bohr Model: Atoms with Orbits

9.5 The Quantum-Mechanical Model: Atoms with Orbitals

9.6 Quantum-Mechanical Orbitals and Electron Configurations

9.7 Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table

9.8 The Explanatory Power of the Quantum-Mechanical Model

9.9 Periodic Trends: Atomic Size, Ionization Energy, and Metallic Character

10 Chemical Bonding

10.1 Bonding Models and AIDS Drugs

10.2 Representing Valence Electrons with Dots

10.3 Lewis Structures of Ionic Compounds: Electrons Transferred

10.4 Covalent Lewis Structures: Electrons Shared

10.5 Writing Lewis Structures for Covalent Compounds

10.6 Resonance: Equivalent Lewis Structures for the Same Molecule

10.7 Predicting the Shapes of Molecules

10.8 Electronegativity and Polarity: Why Oil and Water Don’t Mix

11 Gases

11.1 Extra-Long Straws

11.2 Kinetic Molecular Theory: A Model for Gases

11.3 Pressure: The Result of Constant Molecular Collisions

11.4 Boyle’s Law: Pressure and Volume

11.5 Charles’s Law: Volume and Temperature

11.6 The Combined Gas Law: Pressure, Volume, and Temperature

11.7 Avogadro’s Law: Volume and Moles

11.8 The Ideal Gas Law: Pressure, Volume, Temperature, and Moles

11.9 Mixtures of Gases

11.10 Gases in Chemical Reactions

12 Liquids, Solids, and Intermolecular Forces

12.1 Spherical Water

12.2 Properties of Liquids and Solids

12.3 Intermolecular Forces in Action: Surface Tension and Viscosity

12.4 Evaporation and Condensation

12.5 Melting, Freezing, and Sublimation

12.6 Types of Intermolecular Forces: Dispersion, Dipole—Dipole, Hydrogen Bonding, and Ion—Dipole

12.7 Types of Crystalline Solids: Molecular, Ionic, and Atomic

12.8 Water: A Remarkable Molecule

13 Solutions

13.1 Tragedy in Cameroon

13.2 Solutions: Homogeneous Mixtures

13.3 Solutions of Solids Dissolved in Water: How to Make Rock Candy

13.4 Solutions of Gases in Water: How Soda Pop Gets Its Fizz

13.5 Specifying Solution Concentration: Mass Percent

13.6 Specifying Solution Concentration: Molarity

13.7 Solution Dilution

13.8 Solution Stoichiometry

13.9 Freezing Point Depression and Boiling Point Elevation: Making Water Freeze Colder and Boil Hotter

13.10 Osmosis: Why Drinking Saltwater Causes Dehydration

14 Acids and Bases

14.1 Sour Patch Kids and International Spy Movies

14.2 Acids: Properties and Examples

14.3 Bases: Properties and Examples

14.4 Molecular Definitions of Acids and Bases

14.5 Reactions of Acids and Bases

14.6 Acid—Base Titration: A Way to Quantify the Amount of Acid or Base in a Solution

14.7 Strong and Weak Acids and Bases

14.8 Water: Acid and Base in One

14.9 The pH and pOH Scales: Ways to Express Acidity and Basicity

14.10 Buffers: Solutions That Resist pH Change

15 Chemical Equilibrium

15.1 Life: Controlled Disequilibrium

15.2 The Rate of a Chemical Reaction

15.3 The Idea of Dynamic Chemical Equilibrium

15.4 The Equilibrium Constant: A Measure of How Far a Reaction Goes

15.5 Heterogeneous Equilibria: The Equilibrium Expression for Reactions Involving a Solid or a Liquid

15.6 Calculating and Using Equilibrium Constants

15.7 Disturbing a Reaction at Equilibrium: Le Ch®telier’s Principle

15.8 The Effect of a Concentration Change on Equilibrium

15.9 The Effect of a Volume Change on Equilibrium

15.10 The Effect of a Temperature Change on Equilibrium

15.11 The Solubility-Product Constant

15.12 The Path of a Reaction and the Effect of a Catalyst

16 Oxidation and Reduction

16.1 The End of the Internal Combustion Engine?

16.2 Oxidation and Reduction: Some Definitions

16.3 Oxidation States: Electron Bookkeeping

16.4 Balancing Redox Equations

16.5 The Activity Series: Predicting Spontaneous Redox Reactions[JJ3]

16.6 Batteries: Using Chemistry to Generate Electricity

16.7 Electrolysis: Using Electricity to Do Chemistry

16.8 Corrosion: Undesirable Redox Reactions

17 Radioactivity and Nuclear Chemistry

17.1 Diagnosing Appendicitis

17.2 The Discovery of Radioactivity

17.3 Types of Radioactivity: Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Decay

17.4 Detecting Radioactivity

17.5 Natural Radioactivity and Half-Life

17.6 Radiocarbon Dating: Using Radioactivity to Measure the Age of Fossils and Other Artifacts

17.7 The Discovery of Fission and the Atomic Bomb

17.8 Nuclear Power: Using Fission to Generate Electricity

17.9 Nuclear Fusion: The Power of the Sun

17.10 The Effects of Radiation on Life

17.11 Radioactivity in Medicine

18 Organic Chemistry

18.1 What Do I Smell?

18.2 Vitalism: The Difference between Organic and Inorganic

18.3 Carbon: A Versatile Atom

18.4 Hydrocarbons: Compounds Containing Only Carbon and Hydrogen

18.5 Alkanes: Saturated Hydrocarbons

18.6 Isomers: Same Formula, Different Structure

18.7 Naming Alkanes

18.8 Alkenes and Alkynes

18.9 Hydrocarbon Reactions

18.10 Aromatic Hydrocarbons

18.11 Functional Groups

18.12 Alcohols

18.13 Ethers

18.14 Aldehydes and Ketones

18.15 Carboxylic Acids and Esters

18.16 Amines

18.17 Polymers

19 Biochemistry

19.1 The Human Genome Project

19.2 The Cell and Its Main Chemical Components

19.3 Carbohydrates: Sugar, Starch, and Fiber

19.4 Lipids

19.5 Proteins

19.6 Protein Structure

19.7 Nucleic Acids: Molecular Blueprints

19.8 DNA Structure, DNA Replication, and Protein Synthesis
New to this edition
  • 13 New Conceptual Checkpoint questions have been added throughout the book. Conceptual Checkpoints reinforce conceptual understanding of the most complex material. Strategically located throughout each chapter, they prompt students to think about concepts and solve problems without doing any math. Answers and explanations appear at the end of each chapter.
  • REVISED! The art program has been further refined and improved, making the visual impact sharper and more targeted for student learning. The art program has been modified to move information from the captions and into the art itself. This allows relevant information to be placed right where it is most needed and makes the art a more accessible study and review tool.
  • Data Interpretation and Analysis, a new category of end- of- chapter questions has been added to each chapter. These questions present actual data from real-life situations and ask students to analyze and interpret that data. They are designed to give students much- needed practice in reading graphs, understanding tables, and making data-driven decisions.
  • 39 Interactive Worked Examples instruct students how to break down problems using Tro’s “Sort, Strategize, Solve, and Check” technique in an interactive, digital format. These problems are incorporated in Mastering Chemistry as assignable activities.
  • UPDATED! The data throughout the book has been updated to reflect the most recent measurements and developments available.
  • For example, the half-life of Carbon-14 has been changed to 5715 years in Table 17.2 and throughout Chapter 17 to reflect the current accepted value and new information has been added about thermoluminescent dosimeters in Section 17.4.
  • Other updates include changes made to Figure 8.2 Climate Change, Section 10.1 Bonding Models and AIDS Drugs, Table 11.5 Changes in Pollutant Levels for Major U.S. Cities, 1980–2014, The Chemistry in the Environment box in Section 12.8 Water: A Remarkable Molecule, and Section 17.8 Nuclear Power: Using Fission to Generate Electricity.
  • UPDATED! Several chapter-opening sections (and/or the corresponding art), including Sections 1.1, 2.1, 12.1, and 16.1, have been replaced or significantly modified.
    A new section (Section 2.8), new example (Example 2.12), and new end-of-chapter problems address conversions involving quantities with combined units, such as mL/kg or km/hr.
  • Temporary symbols for elements 113, 115, 117, and 118 (Uut, Uup, Uus, and Uuo, respectively) have been added to all periodic tables.
  • REVISED! Text in all chapters has been edited for cl
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