Building on the Foundations of Statistics - Pearson Original VitalSource eText : 9781488613302

Building on the Foundations of Statistics - Pearson Original VitalSource eText

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Pearson Custom Books
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This custom edition is published for Swinburne University.

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About the book

Building on the Foundations of Statistics is meant for students who have met some of the theory behind hypothesis testing and learnt how to apply a range of basic hypothesis tests using SPSS. The text aims to extend students' skills by introducing new concepts related to relationships and hypothesis testing. It also aims to develop the students' insights into the strengths and limitations of hypothesis testing. Students will be introduced to more advanced statistical techniques, namely, multiple regression and analysis of variance.

Table of contents


Topic 1.1 Review of Concepts 1
 Populations and Samples 1
 Hypothesis Testing – The Mechanics 2
 The 95% Confidence Interval 6
 Observational versus Experimental Studies – Confounding and Causation 7
 Experimental Design 8
 Choosing the Appropriate Analysis 11
Topic 1.2 Entering Your Own Data in SPSS 15
 Defining the Variables 16
 Entering the Data 17
 Saving the data file 18
 Deleting cases and variables. 18
 Topic 1.3 Correlation and Regression Revisited 20
 Scatterplots 20
 Pearson’s r and the Regression Line 22
 Linear Regression 27
 Writing Reports 30
 Checking the Direction of the Relationship 33
Topic 1.4 Limitations of Hypothesis Testing 36
 Significance versus Importance 36
 Not Significant versus No Relationship 39
 Power Analysis 40
Topic 1.5 Using Dichotomous Variables in Regression 45
Topic 1.6 The Concept of Interaction 47

Topic 2.1 The Basics of Multiple Regression 53
Using SPSS to Perform a Multiple Regression 53
Interpreting the SPSS Output 56
Review Exercises for Topic 2.1  Solutions on page 331 62
Topic 2.2 Understanding Part and Partial Correlation Coefficients 64
Partial Correlation Coefficients 64
Part Correlation Coefficients 69
Terminology – Mediating Variables 72
Review Exercises for Topic 2.2  Solutions on page 333 75
Topic 2.3 Presentation of Results 78
Identifying Hypotheses or Research Questions 78
Exploring the Output 78
Writing the Report 80
Topic 2.4 Testing Assumptions for Regression 84
The Regression Assumptions 84
Testing the Assumptions 84
Producing the Graphs for Assumption Testing 91
Topic 2.5 Other Practical Issues 92
Multicollinearity 92
Limitations on Predictions 92
Have I got Sufficient Data? 92
Topic 2.6 Testing for Interactions 93
Interactions Involving one Dichotomous and one Continuous Variable 93
Interactions Involving Two Continuous Variables 96
Topic 2.7 Different Regression Strategies 100
The Major Uses of Regression 100
Different Analytical Strategies 100
Section 2 Revision Exercises  Solutions on page 341 102


Topic 3.1 t-tests Revisited 107
Checking the Direction of the Difference 109
Assumptions underlying the independent samples t-test 112
Non-significant t-tests - Power 120
Some terminology 120
Type I and Type II Errors 121
Topic 3.2 Revision of Variance 122
Topic 3.3  Introduction to the Analysis of Variance –  The Single Factor Independent Groups Design 123
Understanding the Basis of the Analysis of Variance 123
Calculating the F-Ratio 127
The Sampling Distribution of F 131
Special Case – Two Treatment Conditions 132
Effect Size 132
Review Exercises for Topic 3.3  Solutions on page 348 133
Topic 3.4 Producing and Reporting a One-Way Analysis of Variance Using SPSS for Windows 135
Using SPSS to Produce ANOVA Tables 135
Power Analysis for One-way ANOVA 139
Presenting Results 141
Assumptions 147
A Complete Worked Example 148
Review Exercises for Topic 3.4  Solutions on page 353 153
Topic 3.5  Analytical Comparisons in the Single Factor Independent Groups Design 155
Introduction 155
Specifying Comparisons in SPSS 157
Experimentwise Versus Comparisonwise Errors 159
Planned Versus Unplanned Comparisons 160
Performing Post Hoc Tests Using SPSS 163
Presentation of Results 165
A Review Example 168
Review Exercises for Topic 3.5  Solutions on page 358 173
Topic 3.6 Completely Randomised Factorial Design ANOVA 177
Advantages of Factorial Designs 178
Main Effects and Interaction 178
Using SPSS to Produce the ANOVA Table for Factorial Designs 182
Interpreting the SPSS Output 187
Reporting Results from a Factorial ANOVA (No Significant Interaction) 188
Reporting Results from a Factorial ANOVA (Significant Interaction) 190
Analytical Comparisons in Factorial Designs 196
Assumptions 204
A Review Example – Significant Interaction 205
A Review Example – No Significant Interaction 209
Review Exercises for Topic 3.6 215
Topic 3.7 Analysis of Variance for the Single Factor Within Subjects Design 218
Techniques for Controlling Nuisance Variables 218
Practice Effects in the Repeated Measures Design 219
Theory Behind the Analysis of Variance for Related Samples Designs 221
Calculating the F-ratio by Hand – A Worked Example 223
Effect Size and Power Analysis 225
The Assumptions for a Within-Subjects Analysis of Variance 226
Using SPSS to Obtain the ANOVA Table 226
Analytical Comparisons for the Single Factor Within Subjects Design 234
A Review Example 238
Review Exercises  Solutions on page 379 245
Topic 3.8 Mixed Factorial Design ANOVA 248
Using SPSS to Produce the ANOVA Table for a Mixed Design 248
Interpreting the SPSS Output 252
Report on a Mixed Design ANOVA 253
Further Analyses for Mixed Design ANOVA 254
A Review Example 262
Longitudinal studies involving a Control Group 280
Review Exercises for Topic 3.8 Solutions on page 391 293
Section 3 Revision Exercises  Solutions on page 393 297

APPENDIX A: Solutions to Exercises 317
APPENDIX B: Power Analysis Tables for Correlation 405
APPENDIX C: Power Analysis Tables for ANOVA 407
APPENDIX D: SPSS Revision Instructions 415

Index 423

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