Routing TCP/IP, Volume II: CCIE Professional Development (2e) : 9781587054709

Routing TCP/IP, Volume II: CCIE Professional Development (2e)

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Pearson Higher Ed USA
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Praised in its first edition for its approachable style and wealth of information, this new edition provides readers a deep understanding of exterior routing protocols, teaches how to implement them using Cisco routers, and brings readers up-to-date on the latest enhancements and advanced IP routing issues.

Routing TCP/IP, Volume II, Second Edition covers TCP connections, message states, path attributes, interior routing protocol interoperation, neighbor connections, and much more. The authors present crucial knowledge for every professional who wants to manage routers to support network growth and change. The routing and switching techniques they cover are fundamental to all modern networks, and form the foundation of all CCIE tracks - making this book an outstanding resource for those seeking to earn Cisco's elite CCIE credential.

While this book's "practical" aspects focus on Cisco's IOS, the authors illuminate concepts and issues that apply to any routing platform - making this a superb general reference for network professionals in any environment.

Table of contents

Introduction xxi

Chapter 1 Inter-Domain Routing Concepts 1

Early Inter-Domain Routing: The Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) 1

    Origins of EGP 2

    Operation of EGP 3

        EGP Topology Issues 3

        EGP Functions 5

        Neighbor Acquisition Protocol 6

        Neighbor Reachability Protocol 8

        Network Reachability Protocol 10

    Shortcomings of EGP 15

The Advent of BGP 16

BGP Basics 17

Autonomous System Types 21

External and Internal BGP 22

Multihoming 29

    Transit AS Multihoming 30

    Stub AS Multihoming 31

    Multihoming and Routing Policies 36

    Multihoming Issues: Load Sharing and Load Balancing 36

    Multihoming Issues: Traffic Control 37

    Multihoming Issues: Provider-Assigned Addressing 40

Classless Inter-Domain Routing 41

    A Summarization Summary 41

    Classless Routing 43

    Summarization: The Good, the Bad, and the Asymmetric 47

    CIDR: Reducing Class B Address Space Depletion 50

    CIDR: Reducing Routing Table Explosion 50

    Managing and Assigning IPv4 Address Blocks 54

    CIDR Issues: Multihoming and Provider-Assigned Addresses 56

    CIDR Issues: Address Portability 58

    CIDR Issues: Provider-Independent Addresses 59

    CIDR Issues: Traffic Engineering 60

    CIDR Approaches Its Limits 62

    IPv6 Comes of Age 66

    Routing Table Explosion, Again 66

Looking Ahead 68

Review Questions 69

Chapter 2 Introduction to BGP 71

Who Needs BGP? 71

    Connecting to Untrusted Domains 71

    Connecting to Multiple External Neighbors 74

    Setting Routing Policy 79

    BGP Hazards 82

Operation of BGP 84

    BGP Message Types 85

        Open Message 85

        Keepalive Message 86

        Update Message 86

        Notification Message 87

    BGP Finite State Machine 87

        Idle State 88

        Connect State 89

        Active State 89

        OpenSent State 89

        OpenConfirm State 90

        Established State 90

    Path Attributes 90

        ORIGIN Attribute 92

        AS_PATH Attribute 92

        NEXT_HOP Attribute 97

        Weight 100

    BGP Decision Process 100

    BGP Message Formats 103

    Open Message 104

    Update Message 105

    Keepalive Message 108

    Notification Message 108

Configuring and Troubleshooting BGP Peering 110

    Case Study: EBGP Peering 110

    Case Study: EBGP Peering over IPv6 114

    Case Study: IBGP Peering 118

    Case Study: Connected Check and EBGP Multihop 127

    Case Study: Managing and Securing BGP Connections 136

Looking Ahead 142

Review Questions 143

Configuration Exercises 144

Troubleshooting Exercises 145

Chapter 3 BGP and NLRI 155

Configuring and Troubleshooting NLRI in BGP 155

    Injecting Prefixes with the network Statement 156

    Using the network mask Statement 160

    Injecting Prefixes with Redistribution 162

NLRI and IBGP 167

    Managing Prefixes in an IBGP Topology 168

    IBGP and IGP Synchronization 179

Advertising BGP NLRI into the Local AS 182

    Redistributing BGP NLRI into the IGP 182

    Case Study: Distributing NLRI in a Stub AS with IBGP 184

    Distributing NLRI in a Stub AS with Static Routes 193

    Advertising a Default Route to a Neighboring AS 196

Advertising Aggregate Routes with BGP 198

    Case Study: Aggregation Using Static Routes 199

    Aggregation Using the aggregate-address Statement 201


    Using AS_SET with Aggregates 210

Looking Ahead 218

Review Questions 218

Configuration Exercises 219

Troubleshooting Exercises 223

Chapter 4 BGP and Routing Policies 237

Policy and the BGP Database 238

IOS BGP Implementation 249

    InQ and OutQ 249

    IOS BGP Processes 251

    NHT, Event, and the Open Processes 256

    Table Versions 258

Managing Policy Changes 267

    Clearing BGP Sessions 268

    Soft Reconfiguraton 269

    Route Refresh 274

Route Filtering Techniques 279

    Filtering Routes by NLRI 280

    Case Study: Using Distribute Lists 280

    Route Filtering with Extended ACLs 292

    Case Study: Using Prefix Lists 293

    Filtering Routes by AS_PATH 304

    Regular Expressions 304

        Literals and Metacharacters 305

        Delineation: Matching the Start and End of Lines 306

        Bracketing: Matching a Set of Characters 306

        Negating: Matching Everything Except a Set of Characters 306

        Wildcard: Matching Any Single Character 307

        Alternation: Matching One of a Set of Characters 307

        Optional Characters: Matching a Character That May or May Not Be There 307

        Repetition: Matching a Number of Repeating Characters 307

        Boundaries: Delineating Literals 308

        Putting It All Together: A Complex Example 308

    Case Study: Using AS-Path Filters 309

    Case Study: Setting Policy with Route Maps 314

    Filter Processing 322

Influencing the BGP Decision Process 323

    Case Study: Administrative Weights 325

    Case Study: Using the LOCAL_PREF Attribute 334

    Case Study: Using the MULTI_EXIT_DISC Attribute 343

    Case Study: Prepending the AS_PATH 366

    Case Study: Administrative Distances and Backdoor Routes 372

Controlling Complex Route Maps 379

    Continue Clauses 380

    Policy Lists 383

Looking Ahead 386

Review Questions 386

Configuration Exercises 388

Troubleshooting Exercises 392

Chapter 5 Scaling BGP 401

Scaling the Configuration 402

    Peer Groups 403

    Peer Templates 413

        Session Templates 414

        Policy Templates 419

    Communities 425

        Well-Known Communities 426

        Arbitrary Communities 434

        Using the AA:NN Format 443

        Expanded Community Lists 445

        Adding and Deleting Communities 460

        Extended Community Lists 472

Scaling BGP Functions 478

    Route Flap Dampening 479

    Outbound Route Filters (ORF) 486

    Next-Hop Tracking 496

    Fast External Fallover 509

    Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) 512

    BGP Prefix Independent Convergence (PIC) 523

        ADD-PATHS Capability 528

    Graceful Restart 538

    Maximum Prefixes 540

    Tuning BGP CPU 552

    Tuning BGP Memory 556

    BGP Transport Optimization 563

        Optimizing TCP 563

        Optimizing BGP Update Generation 568

        Optimizing TCP ACK Message Receipt 568

Scaling the BGP Network 569

    Private AS Numbers 569

    4-Byte AS Numbers 574

    IBGP and the N-Squared Problem 575

    Confederations 576

    Route Reflectors 592

Looking Ahead 606

Review Questions 607

Configuration Exercises 608

Troubleshooting Exercises 612

Chapter 6 Multiprotocol BGP 615

Multiprotocol Extensions to BGP 616

MBGP Support for the IPv6 Address Family 618

Configuring MBGP for IPv6 619

    IPv4 and IPv6 Prefixes over an IPv4 TCP Session 620

    Upgrading IPv4 BGP Configurations to the Address Family Format 629

    IPv4 and IPv6 over an IPv6 TCP Connection 631

    Dual Stack MBGP Connection 642

    Multihop Dual Stack MBGP Connection 647

    Mixed IPv4 and IPv6 Sessions 650

    Multiprotocol IBGP 654

    Case Study: Multiprotocol Policy Configuration 666

Looking Ahead 705

Review Questions 705

Configuration Exercises 706

    Question 1: 707

Troubleshooting Exercises 709

Chapter 7 Introduction to IP Multicast Routing 713

Requirements for IP Multicast 716

    IPv4 Multicast Addresses 717

    IPv6 Multicast Addresses 721

    Group Membership Concepts 724

        Joining and Leaving a Group 726

        Join Latency 726

        Leave Latency 727

        Group Maintenance 728

        Multiple Routers on a Network 728

    Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) 729

        IGMPv2 Host Functions 730

        IGMPv2 Router Functions 731

        IGMPv1 733

        IGMPv3 735

        IGMP Message Format 736

    Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) 742

    IGMP/MLD Snooping 745

    Cisco Group Management Protocol (CGMP) 749

Multicast Routing Issues 753

    Multicast Forwarding 754

    Multicast Routing 756

    Sparse Versus Dense Topologies 757

    Implicit Joins Versus Explicit Joins 758

    Source-Based Trees Versus Shared Trees 760

    Source-Specific Multicast (SSM) 761

    Multicast Scoping 763

        TTL Scoping 763

        Administrative Scoping 765

Looking Ahead 766

Recommended Reading 766

Review Questions 766

Configuration Exercises 768

Chapter 8 Protocol Independent Multicast 771

Introduction to Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM) 771

Operation of Protocol Independent Multicast-Dense Mode (PIM-DM) 773

    PIM-DM Basics 773

    Prune Overrides 779

    Unicast Route Changes 782

    PIM-DM Designated Routers 782

    PIM Forwarder Election 782

Operation of Protocol Independent Multicast-Sparse Mode (PIM-SM) 785

    PIM-SM Basics 786

    Finding the Rendezvous Point 787

        Bootstrap Protocol 787

        Auto-RP Protocol 789

        Embedded RP Addresses 790

    PIM-SM and Shared Trees 793

    Source Registration 796

    PIM-SM and Shortest Path Trees 803

    PIMv2 Message Formats 808

        PIMv2 Message Header Format 809

        PIMv2 Hello Message Format 810

        PIMv2 Register Message Format 811

        PIMv2 Register Stop Message Format 812

        PIMv2 Join/Prune Message Format 812

        PIMv2 Bootstrap Message Format 814

        PIMv2 Assert Message Format 815

        PIMv2 Graft Message Format 816

        PIMv2 Graft-Ack Message Format 816

        Candidate-RP-Advertisement Message Format 817

Configuring IP Multicast Routing 817

    Case Study: Configuring Protocol Independent Multicast-Dense Mode (PIM-DM) 819

    Configuring Protocol Independent Multicast-Sparse Mode (PIM-SM) 828

        Case Study: Statically Configuring the RP 829

        Case Study: Configuring Auto-RP 837

        Case Study: Configuring Sparse-Dense Mode 845

        Case Study: Configuring the Bootstrap Protocol 849

    Case Study: Multicast Load Sharing 856

Troubleshooting IP Multicast Routing 863

    Using mrinfo 865

    Using mtrace and mstat 867

Looking Ahead 872

Recommended Reading 872

Review Questions 873

Configuration Exercises 873

Troubleshooting Exercises 876

Chapter 9 Scaling IP Multicast Routing 881

Multicast Scoping 881

Case Study: Multicasting Across Non-Multicast Domains 885

Connecting to DVMRP Networks 888

Inter-AS Multicasting 891

    Multiprotocol Extensions for BGP (MBGP) 894

    Operation of Multicast Source Discovery Protocol (MSDP) 896

    MSDP Message Formats 898

        Source Active TLV 898

        Source Active Request TLV 899

        Source Active Response TLV 900

        Keepalive TLV 900

        Notification TLV 900

Case Study: Configuring MBGP 902

Case Study: Configuring MSDP 908

Case Study: MSDP Mesh Groups 913

Case Study: Anycast RP 917

Case Study: MSDP Default Peers 923

Looking Ahead 926

Review Questions 926

Configuration Exercise 927

Chapter 10 IPv4 to IPv4 Network Address Translation (NAT44) 931

Operation of NAT44 932

    Basic NAT Concepts 932

    NAT and IP Address Conservation 934

    NAT and ISP Migration 937

    NAT and Multihomed Autonomous Systems 938

    Port Address Translation (PAT) 940

    NAT and TCP Load Distribution 942

    NAT and Virtual Servers 944

NAT Issues 944

    Header Checksums 945

    Fragmentation 945

    Encryption 945

    Security 946

    Protocol-Specific Issues 946

        ICMP 947

        DNS 948

        FTP 951

        SMTP 953

        SNMP 953

        Routing Protocols 953

        Traceroute 953

Configuring NAT44 955

    Case Study: Static NAT 955

    NAT44 and DNS 962

    Case Study: Dynamic NAT 964

    Case Study: A Network Merger 969

    Case Study: ISP Multihoming with NAT 975

    Port Address Translation 980

    Case Study: TCP Load Balancing 982

    Case Study: Service Distribution 984

    Troubleshooting NAT44 986

Looking Ahead 988

Review Questions 989

Configuration Exercises 989

Troubleshooting Exercises 991

Chapter 11 IPv6 to IPv4 Network Address Translation (NAT64) 995

Stateless IP/ICMP Translation (SIIT) 997

    IPv4/IPv6 Header Translation 999

    ICMP/ICMPv6 Translation 1002

    Fragmentation and PMTU 1005

    Upper-Layer Header Translation 1006

Network Address Translation with Port Translation (NAT-PT) 1007

    Operation of NAT-PT 1008

    Configuring NAT-PT 1010

    Why Is NAT-PT Obsolete? 1029

Stateless NAT64 1031

    Operation of Stateless NAT64 1031

    Configuration of Stateless NAT64 1036

    Limitations of NAT64 1038

Stateful NAT64 1038

    Operation of Stateful NAT64 1038

    Configuration of Stateful NAT64 1041

    Limitations of Stateful NAT64 1043

Looking Ahead 1043

Review Questions 1044

Configuration Exercise 1044

    Configuration Exercise Premise 1045

Appendix A Answers to Review Questions 1047

Appendix B (online) Answers to Configuration Exercises

Appendix C (online) Answers to Troubleshooting Exercises


9781587054709   TOC   8/4/2016


New to this edition
Fully updated throughout, this guide reflects today's exterior routing protocols, advanced IP routing issues, Cisco implementations, and CCIE topics and content. Exercises and solutions have also been updated to reflect content updates throughout.
Features & benefits
  • A complete revision of the best-selling first edition, widely considered a premier text on exterior routing protocols
  • A core textbook for modern CCIE preparation, and a practical reference for all network designers, administrators, and engineers (both Cisco and non-Cisco)
  • Contains authoritative CCIE structured review and exercises for verification and validation
  • Includes configuration and troubleshooting lessons that would cost thousands to learn in a classroom, plus many up-to-date examples and case studies
Author biography

Jeff Doyle, CCIE No. 1919, is vice president of research at Fishtech Labs. Specializing in IP routing protocols, SDN/NFV, data center fabrics, MPLS, and IPv6, Jeff has designed or assisted in the design of large-scale IP service provider and enterprise networks in 26 countries over 6 continents. He worked with early IPv6 adopters in Japan, China, and South Korea, and has advised service providers, government agencies, military contractors, equipment manufacturers, and large enterprises on best-practice IPv6 deployment. He now advises large enterprises on evolving data center infrastructures, SDN, and SD-WAN.

Jeff is the author of CCIE Professional Development: Routing TCP/IP, Volumes I and II and OSPF and IS-IS: Choosing an IGP for Large-Scale Networks; a co-author of Software Defined Networking: Anatomy of OpenFlow; and an editor and contributing author of Juniper Networks Routers: The Complete Reference. He also writes for Forbes and blogs for both Network World and Network Computing. Jeff is one of the founders of the Rocky Mountain IPv6 Task Force, is an IPv6 Forum Fellow, and serves on the executive board of the Colorado chapter of the Internet Society (ISOC).

Jeff lives in Westminster, Colorado, with his wife Sara and a Sheltie named Max, the Forrest Gump of the dog world. Jeff and Sara count themselves especially fortunate that their four grown children and a growing herd of grandchildren all live within a few miles.